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► Food & Nutrition 4 > Fermentation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fermentation Deck (123):
1

A filbunke is what? A. A tree nut from Brazil, B. A cave ripened cheese, C. A Swedish fermented beverage made from sour milk

c. A swedish fermented beverage made from sour milk

2

A spreadable product made from left-over by-products of beer brewing is called what?

Vegemite

3

A defect in what product is called bloaters?

Pickles

4

A single microorganism or mixture of microorganisms inoculated into a food product to carry out a fermentation is called what?

Starter culture

5

At 100% saturation (= 100 Salometer) a NaCl solution contains what percentage of salt

26.50%

6

Cheese that has been grated or cut, had an emulsifying salt added and been melted and cooled is called what?

Pasteurized process cheese

7

Define titratable acidity for milk

Amount of 0.1 N NaOH to titrate milk to a phenolphthalein endpoint

8

From what root is poi made?

Taro

9

Ground soybeans made into a milk and precipitated with CaSO4 or MgSO4 is called what?

Tofu

10

Hops are the dried flowers of plant?

Humulus lupulus

11

How many sizes of olives are there?

8 grades from small {132/lb} to supercolossal {32/lb})

12

How much fat does butter have?

80.0-81.0% milkfat

13

In baking what is the primary purpose of the yeast?

Leavening (carbon dioxide production)

14

In beer brewing, what is “mashing”?

Malt + Adjunct + H2O

15

In brines, salt is measured with a salometer; what is 1° Salometer equal to?

1% of saturated NaCl solution 26.5%)

16

In what beverage is the malolactic fermentation used, what is the chemical reaction, and what is its purpose?

Wine; Malic is converted to lactic acid; To reduce acidity

17

In winemaking, what is racking?

siphoning clear wines from lees

18

Japanese Natto is made from soybeans fermented with what?

Bacillus subtilis (natto)

19

Koji and moromi are two stages in the production of what product?

Soy Sauce

20

Lactobacillus sanfrancisco is used to make what product?

Sourdough bread

21

Matzo is an example of what?

Unleavened bread

22

Milk must have a minimum of what percentage solids not fat and milk fat?

8.25% SNF (Solids-not-fat = Milk - fat - water); 3.25% milkfat

23

Pumpernickel is a type of what?

sourdough rye bread

24

Sauerkraut means what in German?

acid cabbage

25

Stout beers are dark because they use roasted what?

Malt or barley

26

Tempeh is a fermented soybean product from Indonesia. What is mold is used for producing tempeh?

Rhizopus oligosporus (R. oryzae also found)

27

The mashing step of the brewing of beer produces a liquid known as what?

Wort

28

The Solera process is used in the production of what beverage?

Sherry

29

Vinegar strength is measured in “grains”. What is a grain equal to?

0.1% acetic acid = 1 grain

30

What are “fresh pack” pickles?

Cucumbers to which acetic and/or lactic acid is added along with spices

31

What are the holes in swiss cheese called?

Eyes

32

What are the major flavor compounds in cultured buttermilk?

Diacetyl - CH3-CO-CO-CH3; Acetoin (acetyl methyl carbinol): CH3-CHOH-CO-CH3

33

What are the products of glucose in a homofermentation?

Over 90% lactic acid

34

What are the two components of gluten?

Glutenin - strength and firmness; Gliadin - elasticity and adherence

35

What are the two main ingredients in soy sauce?

Wheat and soybeans

36

What are the two stages of soy sauce production?

Koji - enzyme production; Moromi fermentation

37

What are two important lactic acid bacteria in production of sauerkraut?

Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum

38

What breakfast cereal is make using malted barley and involves a fermentation of wheat flour?

Grape nuts

39

What causes bloaters?

Accumulation of CO2 inside cucumber

40

What does 50 grain vinegar mean?

5% by weight acetic acid

41

What four steps are required to ensure a successful natural fermentation of cabbage to sauerkraut?

Shredding of the cabbage, removal of air (by packing in a vessel and covering), addition of salt, storage at low temperature

42

What genus of bacterium is used most in meat fermentations?

Pediococcus

43

What is “gushing” of beer?

Spontaneous release of carbon dioxide from solution.

44

What is a “bloater”?

Pickles with large cavities formed by carbon dioxide production

45

What is a break roll used for?

Wheat milling

46

What is a varietal wine?

Flavor and name from dominant grape variety (must account for > 51% of grapes); quality - amount of variety and rest of blend

47

What is Cheddaring?

Knitting or curd transformation

48

What is gin flavored with?

Juniper berries

49

What is Indian Idli made from?

Rice + black gram flour, Spices

50

What is Kefir?

Mixed lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of milk

51

What is starting material for miso?

Rice, soybeans (20:80), barley/soybeans or soybeans alone

52

What is sweet Acidophilus Milk?

Milk to which Lactobacillus acidophilus has been added but not allowed to grow

53

What is the difference between Swiss style and Sundae style yogurt?

Swiss – fruit throughout; Sundae – fruit on bottom

54

What is the difference between true buttermilk and cultured buttermilk?

True buttermilk - the liquid expressed in buttermaking (essentially skim milk); Cultured buttermilk - generally skim or low fat milk acidified with a lactic acid bacterial culture

55

What is the genus of microorganism involved in making Lambic Beer?

Brettanomyces

56

What is the genus of the bacteria used in most cheeses to produce lactic acid?

Lactococcus

57

What is the mixture of juice, skins and seeds in winemaking called?

Must

58

What is the most important substance added in making fermented vegetable products?

Salt

59

What is the pH of milk?

6.6

60

What is the primary flavor enhancer in soy sauce?

sodium glutamate

61

What is the purpose of adding grape leaves to homemade pickles?

Tannins inhibit molds

62

What is the purpose of kneading of bread dough?

forces out CO2, equalizes gas cell size (eliminates large gas cells), distributes yeast

63

What is the purpose of milling of flour?

separation of the endosperm from the other structural components and subdivision of endosperm

64

What is the purpose of shortening in bread dough?

Texture, flavor, tenderness, richness

65

What is the scientific name for rye?

Secale cereale

66

What is the scientific name of Baker's Yeast?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

67

What is the scientific name of wheat?

Triticum vulgare

68

What is the separation of curds and whey called?

Draining or dipping

69

What is the starting material for making rum?

molasses

70

What is the starting material for making tequila?

Agave

71

What is the starting material for making vodka?

potatoes

72

What is the term “milling” in relation to cheddar cheese production?

cutting cheddared curds into small pieces for salting and packing

73

What is the term “proof” mean in alcohol?

1% alcohol = 2 proof (maximum is 200 proof)

74

What is the term for the beer-making process where yeast is added to the wort?

Pitching

75

What is the type of wheat used primarily for bread dough?

Hard reds

76

What is the yeast used to make ale?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

77

What is Theobroma cacao?

Cocoa

78

What is triticale?

Wheat + rye

79

What is true buttermilk?

product remaining after cream (18-30% fat) was churned to butter. It was similar to skim milk (0.2-0.5% fat)

80

What is used to make sourdough breads?

yeast and lactic acid bacteria (homofermentative and heterofermentative)

81

What is Vitis vinifera?

Wine grape

82

What microorganism initiates most vegetable fermentations?

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

83

What microorganism is responsible for the characteristic flavor and color of limburger and brick cheeses?

Brevibacterium linens

84

What microorganism produces carbon dioxide and propionic acid in Swiss Cheese?

Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. Shermani

85

What mold is used as a source of amylase for soy sauce production?

Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus sojae

86

What percentage of salt is needed in cabbage to produce sauerkraut?

2.0-2.5%

87

What plant is used for making coffee?

Coffea arabica fruit is flesh berry, size of small cherry, red when ripe

88

What spices in pepperoni make it red?

paprika, red pepper

89

What two bacteria are used in a 1:1 ratio in the production of yogurt?

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

90

What type of distilled spirit is made from grape wine?

Brandy; Cognac

91

What type of wheat is used primarily for cookies, crackers, cakes?

Soft white

92

What yeast is used in the production of ethanol for soy sauce production?

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

93

What yeast is used in winemaking?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus

94

What yeast is used to make lager beer?

Saccharomyces uvarum (carlsbergensis)

95

Where was Lebanon bologna first made?

Lebanon, PA

96

Who first proposed in 1845 that sour milk (i.e., yogurt) increased life span of people in the Balkans?

Elie Metchnikoff

97

Who patented the production of bakers yeast in 1876?

Fleischmann - patent in 1876

98

Why treatment gives pretzels their color and glaze?

dipped into caustic bath before salting and baking

99

Give the moisture to protein rations for semi-dry and dry fermented sausage

Dry - pH ≤ 5.3; 25-50% moisture removed; moisture:protein =

100

List the following cheeses in order of their moisture content (highest to lowest): Edam, Cheddar, Mozzarella, Romano

Mozzarella, Edam, Cheddar, Romano

101

Mission, Ascolano, Seveillano, and Manzanillo are four varieties of what product?

Olives

102

Name the cheeses for which these microorganisms are used : Penicillium roqueforti; Penicillium camemberti; Brevibacterium linens

blue, roquefort; camembert, brie; brick, limburger

103

What are four conditions are required for preservation of fermented vegetables?

Establishment of anaerobic conditions (air exclusion, CO2 production), salt - inhibition of undesirable microorganisms; lactic acid (works with NaCl); low temperature – (18-27 C)

104

What are the 2 roles of salt in breadmaking?

Changes the taste; bread with no salt is quite flat and tasteless; Effects the dough's rheological properties; salt makes the dough stronger.

105

What are the products of glucose in a heterofermentation?

Lactic acid, carbon dioxide, ethanol and or acetic acid

106

What are the three essential ingredients for making leavened bread?

Flour, water, yeast

107

What are the two components of baking powder?

Baking Soda (NaHCO3) + Leavening Acid (e.g. KHC4H4O6 - potassium acid tartrate or δ-gluconolactone): H+ + NaHCO3 ---> Na+ + H2O + CO2↑

108

What are three conditions are necessary to allow growth of lactic acid bacteria and production of successful vegetable fermentations:

Low temperature, Establishment of anaerobic conditions via Air exclusion, Salt addition

109

What are three functions of nitrite in cured meat?

Cured meat color; Clostridium botulinum inhibition, antioxidant, flavor

110

What are two functions of ascorbates/erythorbates in cured meats?

Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris; Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris

111

What does NSLAB stand for and give three examples of NSLAB?

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria; Homofermentative Lactobacillus, heterofermentative Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus

112

What four adjuncts used in beer making?

corn, corn products, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, soy, cassava, potatoes, sugar syrup

113

What is the common name for Avena sativa?

Oats

114

What is the common name for Hordeum vulgare?

Barley

115

What is the common name for Oryza sativa?

Rice

116

What is the common name for Zea mays?

Corn

117

What is the difference between black, green and oolong tea?

Green - unfermented (oxidized) leaves of Camellia sinensis; Oolong - partially fermented (oxidized) leaves that are wilted and bruised; Black- fully fermented (oxidized), wilted and crushed leaves

118

What is the difference between cultured buttermilk and true buttermilk?

Cultured – uses bacteria to produce lactic acid and flavor (diacetyl); True – the product remaining after churning cream to butter

119

What is the difference between red, white and rose wine?

Red - red grapes with skins; White - white grapes or red grapes without skins; Rose - somewhere in between

120

What is the Malo-Lactic Fermentation and what is its purpose?

Malate - Lactate + CO2; to reduce acidity of wine

121

What two genera of microorganisms are used in making San Francisco Sourdough Bread?

Saccharomyces exiguus (Torulopsis holmii), Lactobacillus sanfrancisco

122

What two species of bacteria are used to produce cheeses made with higher temperatures such as swiss?

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

123

Why are ripe olives black?

Lye + aeration - dark color due to oxidation of tannins; Ferrous gluconate added reacts with tannins for darker color