Flashcards in Cereal and Grains Deck (62)
Why is soft wheat is preferable for flours used in making cake?
Development of weak gluten (soft crumb)
Why is raw soybean meal not as good of a source of essential proteins as cooked or heat processed soy bean meal?
Soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors, which reduce digestibility of soy protein; heating denatures the inhibitors.
Why is Japanese or short grain rice more sticky than Indian or long grain rice after cooking?
Waxy variety (high amylopectin content)
Why is calcium propionate used as an ingredient of soft rye bread?
Antifungal agent (preservative also accepted)
Why does less starch granule damage occurs during milling of soft wheats?
Less energy is required for reduction of grain to flour
What wheat type has the lowest protein and produces weak gluten?
Soft white winter wheat (used for cakes and cookies)
What type of wheat is sown or planted in late autumn?
What type of carotenoid predominates in wheat flour?
Xanthophyll and its esters (no vit A activity)
What two grains make up crispix cereal?
rice and corn
What term is used to describe all matter that can be removed readily from wheat by prescribed mechanical means when the wheat id harvested?
What product is made from coarsely ground corn mixed with CaOH?
What portion of the cereal grain contains starch granules and protein bodies?
What polysaccharides in oats provide viscosity and cause filtration problems in the brewing industry?
What microorganism is used in the manufacture of the fermented soybean product tempeh?
Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae
What is wheat tempering?
Adding water to wheat to a set moisture content so that the bran can be easily separated from the endosperm during milling.
What is used to prevent bread from becoming ropey?
Sodium and calcium propionates
What is the protein content of straight flour used for making white bread?
What is the only wheat species of importance in the baking industry of the western world?
What is the name for the protein rich layer surrounding the endosperm of cereals?
What is the maximum ERH considered safe for grain storage?
70% (around 80% ERH moisture grain results in increased respiration and temperature increases)
What is the limiting amino acid in wheat?
What is the hexaphosphate ester of inositol that comprises about 1% of the wheat kernel?
What is the common name for Triticum vulgare?
What is semolina?
Fraction of wheat endosperm in the form of course particles (may contain some bran)
What is converted rice?
Rice steeped in water, steamed and dried again before milling (transfers B vitamins to the endosperm)
What is a common spoilage characteristic that homemade bread dough may exhibit?
What enzyme is responsible for starch synthesis?
Starch synthase (Granule bound and soluble)
What branched chain, non-starch carbohydrate fraction of rye absorbs large amounts of water and contributes to baking quality of rye flour?
What are the two primary proteins for dough fermentation?
Gliadins and glutenins