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Flashcards in Cereal and Grains Deck (62):
1

Why is soft wheat is preferable for flours used in making cake?

Development of weak gluten (soft crumb)

2

Why is raw soybean meal not as good of a source of essential proteins as cooked or heat processed soy bean meal?

Soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors, which reduce digestibility of soy protein; heating denatures the inhibitors.

3

Why is Japanese or short grain rice more sticky than Indian or long grain rice after cooking?

Waxy variety (high amylopectin content)

4

Why is calcium propionate used as an ingredient of soft rye bread?

Antifungal agent (preservative also accepted)

5

Why does less starch granule damage occurs during milling of soft wheats?

Less energy is required for reduction of grain to flour

6

What wheat type has the lowest protein and produces weak gluten?

Soft white winter wheat (used for cakes and cookies)

7

What type of wheat is sown or planted in late autumn?

Winter wheat

8

What type of carotenoid predominates in wheat flour?

Xanthophyll and its esters (no vit A activity)

9

What two grains make up crispix cereal?

rice and corn

10

What term is used to describe all matter that can be removed readily from wheat by prescribed mechanical means when the wheat id harvested?

Dockage

11

What product is made from coarsely ground corn mixed with CaOH?

Masa harina

12

What portion of the cereal grain contains starch granules and protein bodies?

Endosperm

13

What polysaccharides in oats provide viscosity and cause filtration problems in the brewing industry?

Beta-glucans

14

What microorganism is used in the manufacture of the fermented soybean product tempeh?

Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae

15

What is wheat tempering?

Adding water to wheat to a set moisture content so that the bran can be easily separated from the endosperm during milling.

16

What is used to prevent bread from becoming ropey?

Sodium and calcium propionates

17

What is the protein content of straight flour used for making white bread?

12-14% protein

18

What is the only wheat species of importance in the baking industry of the western world?

Triticum vulgare

19

What is the name for the protein rich layer surrounding the endosperm of cereals?

Aleurone layer

20

What is the maximum ERH considered safe for grain storage?

70% (around 80% ERH moisture grain results in increased respiration and temperature increases)

21

What is the limiting amino acid in wheat?

Lysine

22

What is the hexaphosphate ester of inositol that comprises about 1% of the wheat kernel?

Phytate

23

What is the common name for Triticum vulgare?

Wheat

24

What is semolina?

Fraction of wheat endosperm in the form of course particles (may contain some bran)

25

What is converted rice?

Rice steeped in water, steamed and dried again before milling (transfers B vitamins to the endosperm)

26

What is a common spoilage characteristic that homemade bread dough may exhibit?

Ropiness

27

What enzyme is responsible for starch synthesis?

Starch synthase (Granule bound and soluble)

28

What branched chain, non-starch carbohydrate fraction of rye absorbs large amounts of water and contributes to baking quality of rye flour?

Pentosans

29

What are the two primary proteins for dough fermentation?

Gliadins and glutenins

30

What are the three main parts of a grain or kernel?

Bran, Endosperm and Germ

31

What are 2 typical leavening agents?

Yeasts and baking powders

32

Waxy cultivars of cereals contain almost 100% of: a) Wax b) Amylose c) Amylopectin

C) Amylopectin

33

Triticale was produced from a cross of what 2 cereals?

Wheat and rye

34

This substance is formed from gliadins, glutenins and glycolipids when water is mixed with wheat flour.

Gluten

35

The primary yeast used in baking is what?

Saccaromyces cerevisiae

36

The endosperm of wheat consists of starch granules embedded in a what?

Protein matrix

37

Soy flour is produced by solvent extraction of dehulled soybean meal. What is the protein content of this product?

50%

38

Name a starch debranching enzyme.

Pullulanase or isoamylase

39

Glucose isomerase has been used for more than 30 years by the starch industry for the manufacture of what?

High fructose syrups - Glucose isomerase converts glucose to fructose to make HFCS

40

Acid production in sourdough bread is due to what bacteria?

Lactobacillus sanfrancisco (souring is caused by the acid production)

41

According to Osbourne classification, the group of proteins that are soluble in salt solution are called?

Globulins

42

A flour that produces bread of large volume and good crumb texture is called?

Strong flour

43

"Shortening" is defined as any used in baked products.

Fat or oil

44

Which protein fractions of wheat gluten are soluble or insoluble in alcohol?

Gliadin - soluble in alcohol, Glutenin - alcohol-insoluble

45

What is the major difference between hard and soft wheat?

Hard is a higher quality protein, elastic dough, used for breadmaking;   Soft is lower quality protein, used for cake making

46

What is the differencre between a dough and a batter?

In a dough, the water component is low enough that the protein complex is the continuos phase in which the other components are embedded. The water content is much higher ina batter and water is the continuous phase in which protein are dispersed

47

What fourteen plant species provide the bulk of the world food crops?

Rice, wheat, sorgum, barely, sugarcane and sugar beets, potato, sweet potato, cassava, bean, soybean, peanut, coconut, and banana

48

What are the main protein types in corn, oats, and rice?

Corn: zein;      Oats: avenins; Rice: oryzenin

49

What are the four most utilized cereal grains in the world?

Wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum

50

What are cereal adjuncts?

Corn or rice grits used to provide a more economical source of fermentable carbohydrates. Used to obtain paler, blander, less-filling beers.

51

Name three classes of flavonoids

flavones, isoflavanoids, neoflavonoids

52

Name the three main components of cereal grains.

Endosperm, germ, and bran

53

Name the prolamine and glutelin proteins in wheat, corn and barley.

Wheat - Gliadin and Glutenin; Corn - Zein and Zeanin; Barley - Hordein and Hordenin

54

Name some applications for the addition of fungal proteases

Dough conditioning, flour bleaching, flour malting and anti staling

55

In areas where corn was introduced as a staple crop, a new disease soon developed. What is the disease and what causes it?

Pellagra caused by niacin deficiency as 50-80% of corn's niacin is unavailable.

56

How does a double acting baking powder work?

It uses 2 different leavening acids that react at different temperatures. The acids react with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide; powder contains sodium bicarbonate, starch, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and sodium aluminum sulfate.

57

Give the common names for the following: Secale cereale

Rye

58

Give the common names for the following: Avena sativa

Oats

59

Give the common names for the following: Oryza sativa

Rice

60

Give the common names for the following: Hordeum vulgare

Barley

61

Give the common names for the following: Zea mays

Corn

62

What allergic disease is associated with Gluten?

Celiac Disease