Flashcards in Cereal and Grains Deck (62):
Why is soft wheat is preferable for flours used in making cake?
Development of weak gluten (soft crumb)
Why is raw soybean meal not as good of a source of essential proteins as cooked or heat processed soy bean meal?
Soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors, which reduce digestibility of soy protein; heating denatures the inhibitors.
Why is Japanese or short grain rice more sticky than Indian or long grain rice after cooking?
Waxy variety (high amylopectin content)
Why is calcium propionate used as an ingredient of soft rye bread?
Antifungal agent (preservative also accepted)
Why does less starch granule damage occurs during milling of soft wheats?
Less energy is required for reduction of grain to flour
What wheat type has the lowest protein and produces weak gluten?
Soft white winter wheat (used for cakes and cookies)
What type of wheat is sown or planted in late autumn?
What type of carotenoid predominates in wheat flour?
Xanthophyll and its esters (no vit A activity)
What two grains make up crispix cereal?
rice and corn
What term is used to describe all matter that can be removed readily from wheat by prescribed mechanical means when the wheat id harvested?
What product is made from coarsely ground corn mixed with CaOH?
What portion of the cereal grain contains starch granules and protein bodies?
What polysaccharides in oats provide viscosity and cause filtration problems in the brewing industry?
What microorganism is used in the manufacture of the fermented soybean product tempeh?
Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae
What is wheat tempering?
Adding water to wheat to a set moisture content so that the bran can be easily separated from the endosperm during milling.
What is used to prevent bread from becoming ropey?
Sodium and calcium propionates
What is the protein content of straight flour used for making white bread?
What is the only wheat species of importance in the baking industry of the western world?
What is the name for the protein rich layer surrounding the endosperm of cereals?
What is the maximum ERH considered safe for grain storage?
70% (around 80% ERH moisture grain results in increased respiration and temperature increases)
What is the limiting amino acid in wheat?
What is the hexaphosphate ester of inositol that comprises about 1% of the wheat kernel?
What is the common name for Triticum vulgare?
What is semolina?
Fraction of wheat endosperm in the form of course particles (may contain some bran)
What is converted rice?
Rice steeped in water, steamed and dried again before milling (transfers B vitamins to the endosperm)
What is a common spoilage characteristic that homemade bread dough may exhibit?
What enzyme is responsible for starch synthesis?
Starch synthase (Granule bound and soluble)
What branched chain, non-starch carbohydrate fraction of rye absorbs large amounts of water and contributes to baking quality of rye flour?
What are the two primary proteins for dough fermentation?
Gliadins and glutenins
What are the three main parts of a grain or kernel?
Bran, Endosperm and Germ
What are 2 typical leavening agents?
Yeasts and baking powders
Waxy cultivars of cereals contain almost 100% of: a) Wax b) Amylose c) Amylopectin
Triticale was produced from a cross of what 2 cereals?
Wheat and rye
This substance is formed from gliadins, glutenins and glycolipids when water is mixed with wheat flour.
The primary yeast used in baking is what?
The endosperm of wheat consists of starch granules embedded in a what?
Soy flour is produced by solvent extraction of dehulled soybean meal. What is the protein content of this product?
Name a starch debranching enzyme.
Pullulanase or isoamylase
Glucose isomerase has been used for more than 30 years by the starch industry for the manufacture of what?
High fructose syrups - Glucose isomerase converts glucose to fructose to make HFCS
Acid production in sourdough bread is due to what bacteria?
Lactobacillus sanfrancisco (souring is caused by the acid production)
According to Osbourne classification, the group of proteins that are soluble in salt solution are called?
A flour that produces bread of large volume and good crumb texture is called?
"Shortening" is defined as any used in baked products.
Fat or oil
Which protein fractions of wheat gluten are soluble or insoluble in alcohol?
Gliadin - soluble in alcohol, Glutenin - alcohol-insoluble
What is the major difference between hard and soft wheat?
Hard is a higher quality protein, elastic dough, used for breadmaking; Soft is lower quality protein, used for cake making
What is the differencre between a dough and a batter?
In a dough, the water component is low enough that the protein complex is the continuos phase in which the other components are embedded. The water content is much higher ina batter and water is the continuous phase in which protein are dispersed
What fourteen plant species provide the bulk of the world food crops?
Rice, wheat, sorgum, barely, sugarcane and sugar beets, potato, sweet potato, cassava, bean, soybean, peanut, coconut, and banana
What are the main protein types in corn, oats, and rice?
Corn: zein; Oats: avenins; Rice: oryzenin
What are the four most utilized cereal grains in the world?
Wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum
What are cereal adjuncts?
Corn or rice grits used to provide a more economical source of fermentable carbohydrates. Used to obtain paler, blander, less-filling beers.
Name three classes of flavonoids
flavones, isoflavanoids, neoflavonoids
Name the three main components of cereal grains.
Endosperm, germ, and bran
Name the prolamine and glutelin proteins in wheat, corn and barley.
Wheat - Gliadin and Glutenin; Corn - Zein and Zeanin; Barley - Hordein and Hordenin
Name some applications for the addition of fungal proteases
Dough conditioning, flour bleaching, flour malting and anti staling
In areas where corn was introduced as a staple crop, a new disease soon developed. What is the disease and what causes it?
Pellagra caused by niacin deficiency as 50-80% of corn's niacin is unavailable.
How does a double acting baking powder work?
It uses 2 different leavening acids that react at different temperatures. The acids react with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide; powder contains sodium bicarbonate, starch, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and sodium aluminum sulfate.
Give the common names for the following: Secale cereale
Give the common names for the following: Avena sativa
Give the common names for the following: Oryza sativa
Give the common names for the following: Hordeum vulgare
Give the common names for the following: Zea mays