Flashcards in Food History and Laws Deck (126):
If a meat processor wishes to gain approval for use of a new additive in a food product, to whom should they submit a petition for its use?
Both Food and Drug Administration and USDS/FSIS
Who is considered as the “father” of the first Pure Food and Drugs Act?
Dr. Harvey Wiley
A food in its raw or natural state, even after washing, coloring, or otherwise treated in its unpeeled form is called what?
Raw Agricultural Commodity
A product may be considered __________ if marketed under the name of a product covered by a standard of identity, if the requirements of the standard are not met.
According the 21 USC Sec. 321, the authority to promulgate regulations for the efficient enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is hereby vested in whom?
"The Secretary" (currently, Tom Vilsack)
According to Federal Standards of identity, how much fruit juice ingredients must be in fruit jelly?
At least 45 parts by weight fruit juice to each 55 parts by weight of sugar. If less, it must be labeled imitation.
According to section 343 of the US Code, an imitation food, which is not declared on the label as such, is: A. adulterated, B. mislabled or C. misbranded?
According to the Food and Drug Administration, in 1906 a book was published which pushed a meat inspection bill aimed at protecting the domestic market through the Congress. Name the book and it’s author.
The Jungle; Upton Sinclair
Although the USDA has responsibility for meat and meat products, by agreement the Food and Drug Administration regulates products containing _____ percent or less meat.
3% raw, 2% cooked
An action initiated by an agency with the intent of obtaining input from stakeholders prior to drafting a proposed regulation is called what?
Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
An early 1900's team of 12 USDA volunteers tasted household chemicals and food additives to determine their safety was known as what?
The Poison Squad
An industrial solvent, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, which caused crippling injuries in thousands of users, was added to Jamaican Ginger to replace what?
Before what year could a food additive be considered GRAS without testing?
Define OSHA, name the government agency of which it is part, and tell when it was established.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration; Dept. of Labor, 1970
Define standard of identity.
Mandatory, federally-set requirements that determine what a food product must contain in order to be marketed under a certain name in interstate commerce; also what it cannot contain
Dr. Harvey Wiley upset what president because of his pursuit to ban saccharin in the United States?
During Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset for how long?
During what Jewish holy day are four glasses of wine consumed as symbols of the four stages of the Exodus?
Eggs in the shell are under the regulatory jurisdiction of what agency?
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration regulations for foods are found in what title of the CFR?
How is the strength of vinegar defined?
The strength of vinegar is referred to in grains; 1 0 grains = l % Vinegar must have at least 4 g acetic acid/l 00 mi. (4% or 40-grain).
How many years does a US patent last?
Old law--17, New law--20
How often is 21 CFR updated, and when?
Once per year, April 1
How often is the Federal Register published?
In addition to standards of identity, the FDCA also provides for the establishment of standards of __________ and __________
Quality and fill of container
In Judaism, fasting is practiced on this "day of atonement."
In the 1930s, what medication was formulated with diethylene glycol and resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people, mostly children?
Elixir of Sulfanilamide
In what year was the Food and Drug Administration named?
It is necessary to declare net quantity of contents in both the customary U.S. measurement (inch-pound units) and the metric (SI units) as a result of what legislation?
American Technology Preeminence Act of 1990
It started as the Bureau of Chemistry. What’s the current name of this regulatory agency?
Food and Drug Administration
Jewish dietary laws prohibit consumption of which of the following? cantaloupe melons; lobster; cattle; poultry
Liquid whole egg products are under the regulatory jurisdiction of what agency?
Regulations promulgated to ensure compliance with labeling of breakfast cereal are established by what agency?
Food and Drug Administration
Standards of identity include which of the following: a) ingredients that must be used b) ingredients that may be used c) ingredients that may not be used?
All (a, b, c)
Substances used safely in foods before 1958 are referred to as what?
Prior Sanction Ingredients
The BRC Global Standards for Food Safety are currently used by some companies in the food industry. What does "BRC" stand for AND what is the standard related to?
British Retail Consortium; third party audits or certifications
The Environmental Protection Agency is housed in what US Departmetn (Cabinet)?
None. It stands alone.
The FDA and USDA approve application of sanitizers to foods and meats, what agency approves compounds as sanitizers?
The Food and Drug Act was enacted on June 30, 1906 and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act on June 25, 1938. The two presidents who signed these acts during their respective terms has what last name?
The Food and Drug Administration enforces compliance with established tolerances for pesticides in foods. Who establishes these tolerances?
The Food and Drug Administration requires that shell eggs be kept at no higher that what temperature at retail establishments?
The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is found in what title of the US Code?
The main agency charged with enforcing standards that limit exposure to ionizing radiation is what?
NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforces standards on safety in the workplace through what two actions
Inspection and penalties
The Scandinavian dish, lutefisk, is prepared by soaking whitefish in what?
This Bulgarian soup is made from the stomach lining of a cow, milk seasoned with vinegar, garlic, and chili peppers, and is said to cure hangovers.
This embryonic duck egg, considered a delicacy by many Filipinos, is:
To what do defect action levels apply?
Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard
USDA regulations for meat products are found in what title of the CFR?
What act requires vitamins and minerals to be packaged with special child proof closures?
Poison Prevention Act
What action will an injuction by the Food and Drug Administration have on your company?
It will prevent your company from selling the product in interstate commerce, until you are in compliance with Food and Drug Administration regulations
What agency has jurisdiction over advertising of foods in newspaper, magazines, television, and radio?
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
What agency has jurisdiction over wine beverages that contain
Food and Drug Administration
What agency is responsible for administering the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957?
USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
What agency is responsible for inspecting imported meats?
What agency is responsible for regulations concerning the production and sales of wine, liquor, and beer?
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
What amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act required nutritional information on most FDA-regulated foods?
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
What are the two prohibitive acts described in the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act?
Adulteration and Misbranding
What cheese has no standard of identity?
Queso fresco or blanco
What constitutes an “imitation” food?
More than 2% loss of nutrients in the standard identity product
What does "Halal" mean?
What does FIFRA stand for?
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
What does GRAS stand for?
Generally recognized as safe
What executive branch agency has jurisdiction over advertisement of vitamins and minerals?
Food and Drug Administration
What federal document consists of 50 Titles that contain all US laws, including the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act?
The US Code
What food color requires mandatory labeling?
What food market segment has grown by roughly 20% every year since 1990?
What food regulatory agency requires premarket approval of food labels?
What government unit has jurisdiction over mechanical hazards caused by food packaging materials?
Consumer product safety commission.
What is meant by the “signature line” on a package?
The name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
What is the % fat in whole milk?
3.25 (by law)
What is the Delaney Clause?
A clause in the Food Additives Amendment (1958) and Color Additives Amendment (1960) to the FDCA of 1938 which prohibits from use in foods any substance found to cause cancer in man or animal
What is the exception to the Delaney clause been developed by the Food and Drug Administration?
risk vs. benefit or “de minimus” – allows substances in food if they have very little consequences or risk
What is the fat content of regular mayonnaise?
Not less than 65%
What is the most common side dish in Korea?
What is the name of the major piece of federal legislation that was passed in 1938?
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
What is the nutritional claim that may be made when a product serving is less than 140 mg of sodium?
What is the significance of the 1913 “Gould Amendment”?
Resulted in the requirement of the quantity of contents to be stated on food packages
What is the term used to describe the allowable tolerances of natural or unavoidable foreign materials in foods which does not constitute a health hazard to the public?
Defect Action Level
What notation on a food label indicates that the food contains neither meat nor dairy products?
What organization publishes standards for the design and manufacture of milk processing equipment?
3A Standards Committee
What special interest group has the initials CSPI?
Center for Science in the Public Interest
What substances are prohibited in foods by the Delaney Clause?
Any substances shown to cause cancer in man or animal
What two other government agencies along with the FDA have responsibility for ensuring the safety of imported foods
USDA and US Customs
What US president established the Bureau of Chemistry, which had the responsibility for overseeing food safety?
What was the first food ingredient developed via genetic engineering techniques and approved by the Food and Drug Administration?
What year was the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA) enacted and what does it require?
1966; Use of retail packages that are not deceptive
When was the Poultry Products Inspection Act passed? And what did it do?
1957, made poultry inspection mandatory for any processor that ships products in interstate commerce
Which branch (es) of the Federal government are involved in regulating the U.S. food supply?
All 3: legislative, executive, judicial
Which government agency regulates the labeling of meat & poultry products?
FSIS in the USDA
Who has the burden of proving the safety of a food additive?
The company that petitions for its use
Who has the prime responsibility for the safety, wholesomeness, and nutritional quality of food?
Food and Drug Administration
Who is the current Secretary of Agriculture?
Give the significance of the following dates for the United States Food Law: 1785, 1850, 1862, and 1906.
1785 - Enactment of the first general food adulteration law in Mass; 1850 - Pure food and drink law passed by CA; 1862 - Beginning of USDA’s department of chemistry forerunner of Food and Drug Administration; 1906 - Passage of first national Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Meat Inspection Act
Honest and informative labeling is required by law through the ______ _____ &______ Act, which is enforced by what federal agency?
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. Enforced by the Food and Drug Administration.
How many food items are recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as "major food allergens? List them.
Eight (milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, soybeans)
List four current subparts listed under 21 CFR Part 110 Current Good Manufacturing Practices Umbrella GMP's subpart
A. General provisions-excluding harvesting, storage or distribution of raw agricultural commodities; B. Building & facilities; C. Equipment; D. (Reserved); E. Production and process controls; F. (Reserved); G. Defect action levels
Name three amendments to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act?
Oleo Amendment, Miller Pesticide Amendment, Food Additive Amendment, and Color Additives Amendment (Nutritional Labeling and Education Act)
What 5 nutrients must be by law included in enriched bread?
Thiamine, Niacin, Riboflavin, Iron, Folate
What are 3 actions that courts might take on behalf of Food and Drug Administration against an individual, a company, or a product suspected of being in violation of the FDCA?
Injunction, penalty, seizure
What are 3 requirements that most standards should have to allow "safe and suitable" optional ingredients?
They must be functional; They shouldn't change the nature of the product; They shouldn't adversely affect nutritional quality.
What are four categories of additive substances established by the Food and Drug Administration?
GRAS, Prior Sanctioned, food additives, color additives, banned
What are the 3 grades of poultry?
A, B, C
What are the 5 (or 6 for sows) grades of pork?
U.S. No. 1, 2, 3, 4, Utility; For Sows – U.S. No. 1, 2, 3, Medium and Cull
What are the two general types of adulteration of foods?
Economic and Physical
What do the following acronyms stand for: GMP, CFR, CIP, AOAC?
GMP – good manufacturing practices; CFR – code of federal regulations; CIP – clean in place; AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists
What is the difference between an intentional additive and an incidental additive?
Intentional - additives which serve some specific function in food; Incidental - additives which serve no specific function in food but find their way into foods as a result of processing, packaging, and storage.
What organizations or agencies publish the following reference texts? a) Bacteriological Analytical Manual; b) Compendium of Methods in the Microbiological Examination of Foods; c) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products
a) Food and Drug Administration b & c) American Public Health Association
What years were the following laws passed? FDCA; PPIA; Food Additives Amendment; Food Color Amendment
1938; 1957; 1958; 1960
What years were the following laws passed? FPLA; EPIA; NLEA
1966; 1970; 1990
A Scottish dish that consists of the heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep and boiled in the stomach of the animal is called what?
This Chinese delicacy is made from saliva of the male white-nest or black-nest swiflet.
Bird's Nest Soup
This Filipino dessert dish contains such unusual ingredients as kidney beans, garbanzo beans, purple yams, and plantains
Halo Halo (pronounced "hollow hollow")
What was the name of the two brothers who owned the first McDonalds and where was the restaurant located?
Dick and Maurice McDonald; San Bernadino, California
This act protects everyone who buys seed by prohibiting false labeling and advertising of seed in interstate commerce.
Federal Seed Act
Where will the new GMPs and HARCP rules for human food under the Food Safety Modernization Act be located in Title 21?
Which US president installed the first kitchen stove in the White House?
Who is credit with the invention of Haute/Grande cuisine and the chef's hat called the "toque"?
What year was the United States Department of Agriculture founded?
Ingredients listed on food products must be listed in what order?
Descending order of predominance by weight
What is the original name of the paperboard sleeve for disposable coffee cups?
Who was the original Aunt Jemima?
What are the meanings of the following letters used for USDA establishment numbers? G, I, M, P, V
G = egg product
I = Import
M = meat
P = poultry
V = voluntary inspection
William Marler has been involved in food safety since the 1993 Jack-in-the-Box E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. What is his profession?
What company produced a genetically modified potato called "innate" that is resistant to blight and has reduced potential for acrylamide production?