Food History and Laws Flashcards Preview

► Food & Nutrition 4 > Food History and Laws > Flashcards

Flashcards in Food History and Laws Deck (126):
1

If a meat processor wishes to gain approval for use of a new additive in a food product, to whom should they submit a petition for its use?

Both Food and Drug Administration and USDS/FSIS

2

Who is considered as the “father” of the first Pure Food and Drugs Act?

Dr. Harvey Wiley

3

A food in its raw or natural state, even after washing, coloring, or otherwise treated in its unpeeled form is called what?

Raw Agricultural Commodity

4

A product may be considered __________ if marketed under the name of a product covered by a standard of identity, if the requirements of the standard are not met.

Misbranded

5

According the 21 USC Sec. 321, the authority to promulgate regulations for the efficient enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is hereby vested in whom?

"The Secretary" (currently, Tom Vilsack)

6

According to Federal Standards of identity, how much fruit juice ingredients must be in fruit jelly?

At least 45 parts by weight fruit juice to each 55 parts by weight of sugar. If less, it must be labeled imitation.

7

According to section 343 of the US Code, an imitation food, which is not declared on the label as such, is: A. adulterated, B. mislabled or C. misbranded?

B. Misbranded

8

According to the Food and Drug Administration, in 1906 a book was published which pushed a meat inspection bill aimed at protecting the domestic market through the Congress. Name the book and it’s author.

The Jungle; Upton Sinclair

9

Although the USDA has responsibility for meat and meat products, by agreement the Food and Drug Administration regulates products containing _____ percent or less meat.

3% raw, 2% cooked

10

An action initiated by an agency with the intent of obtaining input from stakeholders prior to drafting a proposed regulation is called what?

Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

11

An early 1900's team of 12 USDA volunteers tasted household chemicals and food additives to determine their safety was known as what?

The Poison Squad

12

An industrial solvent, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, which caused crippling injuries in thousands of users, was added to Jamaican Ginger to replace what?

Alcohol

13

Before what year could a food additive be considered GRAS without testing?

1958

14

Define OSHA, name the government agency of which it is part, and tell when it was established.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration; Dept. of Labor, 1970

15

Define standard of identity.

Mandatory, federally-set requirements that determine what a food product must contain in order to be marketed under a certain name in interstate commerce; also what it cannot contain

16

Dr. Harvey Wiley upset what president because of his pursuit to ban saccharin in the United States?

Theodore Roosevelt

17

During Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset for how long?

One month

18

During what Jewish holy day are four glasses of wine consumed as symbols of the four stages of the Exodus?

Passover

19

Eggs in the shell are under the regulatory jurisdiction of what agency?

Food and Drug Administration

20

Food and Drug Administration regulations for foods are found in what title of the CFR?

Title 21

21

How is the strength of vinegar defined?

The strength of vinegar is referred to in grains; 1 0 grains = l % Vinegar must have at least 4 g acetic acid/l 00 mi. (4% or 40-grain).

22

How many years does a US patent last?

Old law--17, New law--20

23

How often is 21 CFR updated, and when?

Once per year, April 1

24

How often is the Federal Register published?

Daily

25

In addition to standards of identity, the FDCA also provides for the establishment of standards of __________ and __________

Quality and fill of container

26

In Judaism, fasting is practiced on this "day of atonement."

Yom Kippur

27

In the 1930s, what medication was formulated with diethylene glycol and resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people, mostly children?

Elixir of Sulfanilamide

28

In what year was the Food and Drug Administration named?

1930

29

It is necessary to declare net quantity of contents in both the customary U.S. measurement (inch-pound units) and the metric (SI units) as a result of what legislation?

American Technology Preeminence Act of 1990

30

It started as the Bureau of Chemistry. What’s the current name of this regulatory agency?

Food and Drug Administration

31

Jewish dietary laws prohibit consumption of which of the following? cantaloupe melons; lobster; cattle; poultry

Lobster

32

Liquid whole egg products are under the regulatory jurisdiction of what agency?

USDA/FSIS

33

Regulations promulgated to ensure compliance with labeling of breakfast cereal are established by what agency?

Food and Drug Administration

34

Standards of identity include which of the following: a) ingredients that must be used b) ingredients that may be used c) ingredients that may not be used?

All (a, b, c)

35

Substances used safely in foods before 1958 are referred to as what?

Prior Sanction Ingredients

36

The BRC Global Standards for Food Safety are currently used by some companies in the food industry. What does "BRC" stand for AND what is the standard related to?

British Retail Consortium; third party audits or certifications

37

The Environmental Protection Agency is housed in what US Departmetn (Cabinet)?

None. It stands alone.

38

The FDA and USDA approve application of sanitizers to foods and meats, what agency approves compounds as sanitizers?

EPA

39

The Food and Drug Act was enacted on June 30, 1906 and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act on June 25, 1938. The two presidents who signed these acts during their respective terms has what last name?

Roosevelt

40

The Food and Drug Administration enforces compliance with established tolerances for pesticides in foods. Who establishes these tolerances?

EPA

41

The Food and Drug Administration requires that shell eggs be kept at no higher that what temperature at retail establishments?

45°F

42

The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is found in what title of the US Code?

Title 21

43

The main agency charged with enforcing standards that limit exposure to ionizing radiation is what?

NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)

44

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforces standards on safety in the workplace through what two actions

Inspection and penalties

45

The Scandinavian dish, lutefisk, is prepared by soaking whitefish in what?

Lye

46

This Bulgarian soup is made from the stomach lining of a cow, milk seasoned with vinegar, garlic, and chili peppers, and is said to cure hangovers.

Shkembe Chorba

47

This embryonic duck egg, considered a delicacy by many Filipinos, is:

Balut

48

To what do defect action levels apply?

Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard

49

USDA regulations for meat products are found in what title of the CFR?

Title 9

50

What act requires vitamins and minerals to be packaged with special child proof closures?

Poison Prevention Act

51

What action will an injuction by the Food and Drug Administration have on your company?

It will prevent your company from selling the product in interstate commerce, until you are in compliance with Food and Drug Administration regulations

52

What agency has jurisdiction over advertising of foods in newspaper, magazines, television, and radio?

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

53

What agency has jurisdiction over wine beverages that contain

Food and Drug Administration

54

What agency is responsible for administering the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957?

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

55

What agency is responsible for inspecting imported meats?

USDA/FSIS

56

What agency is responsible for regulations concerning the production and sales of wine, liquor, and beer?

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

57

What amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act required nutritional information on most FDA-regulated foods?

Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990

58

What are the two prohibitive acts described in the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act?

Adulteration and Misbranding

59

What cheese has no standard of identity?

Queso fresco or blanco

60

What constitutes an “imitation” food?

More than 2% loss of nutrients in the standard identity product

61

What does "Halal" mean?

Permitted

62

What does FIFRA stand for?

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

63

What does GRAS stand for?

Generally recognized as safe

64

What executive branch agency has jurisdiction over advertisement of vitamins and minerals?

Food and Drug Administration

65

What federal document consists of 50 Titles that contain all US laws, including the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act?

The US Code

66

What food color requires mandatory labeling?

All

67

What food market segment has grown by roughly 20% every year since 1990?

Organic foods

68

What food regulatory agency requires premarket approval of food labels?

USDA/FSIS

69

What government unit has jurisdiction over mechanical hazards caused by food packaging materials?

Consumer product safety commission.

70

What is meant by the “signature line” on a package?

The name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor.

71

What is the % fat in whole milk?

3.25 (by law)

72

What is the Delaney Clause?

A clause in the Food Additives Amendment (1958) and Color Additives Amendment (1960) to the FDCA of 1938 which prohibits from use in foods any substance found to cause cancer in man or animal

73

What is the exception to the Delaney clause been developed by the Food and Drug Administration?

risk vs. benefit or “de minimus” – allows substances in food if they have very little consequences or risk

74

What is the fat content of regular mayonnaise?

Not less than 65%

75

What is the most common side dish in Korea?

Kimchi

76

What is the name of the major piece of federal legislation that was passed in 1938?

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

77

What is the nutritional claim that may be made when a product serving is less than 140 mg of sodium?

Low sodium

78

What is the significance of the 1913 “Gould Amendment”?

Resulted in the requirement of the quantity of contents to be stated on food packages

79

What is the term used to describe the allowable tolerances of natural or unavoidable foreign materials in foods which does not constitute a health hazard to the public?

Defect Action Level

80

What notation on a food label indicates that the food contains neither meat nor dairy products?

Pareve

81

What organization publishes standards for the design and manufacture of milk processing equipment?

3A Standards Committee

82

What special interest group has the initials CSPI?

Center for Science in the Public Interest

83

What substances are prohibited in foods by the Delaney Clause?

Any substances shown to cause cancer in man or animal

84

What two other government agencies along with the FDA have responsibility for ensuring the safety of imported foods

USDA and US Customs

85

What US president established the Bureau of Chemistry, which had the responsibility for overseeing food safety?

Abraham Lincoln

86

What was the first food ingredient developed via genetic engineering techniques and approved by the Food and Drug Administration?

Chymosin

87

What year was the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA) enacted and what does it require?

1966; Use of retail packages that are not deceptive

88

When was the Poultry Products Inspection Act passed? And what did it do?

1957, made poultry inspection mandatory for any processor that ships products in interstate commerce

89

Which branch (es) of the Federal government are involved in regulating the U.S. food supply?

All 3: legislative, executive, judicial

90

Which government agency regulates the labeling of meat & poultry products?

FSIS in the USDA

91

Who has the burden of proving the safety of a food additive?

The company that petitions for its use

92

Who has the prime responsibility for the safety, wholesomeness, and nutritional quality of food?

Food and Drug Administration

93

Who is the current Secretary of Agriculture?

Tom Vilsack

94

Give the significance of the following dates for the United States Food Law: 1785, 1850, 1862, and 1906.

1785 - Enactment of the first general food adulteration law in Mass; 1850 - Pure food and drink law passed by CA; 1862 - Beginning of USDA’s department of chemistry forerunner of Food and Drug Administration; 1906 - Passage of first national Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Meat Inspection Act

95

Honest and informative labeling is required by law through the ______ _____ &______ Act, which is enforced by what federal agency?

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. Enforced by the Food and Drug Administration.

96

How many food items are recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as "major food allergens? List them.

Eight (milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, soybeans)

97

List four current subparts listed under 21 CFR Part 110 Current Good Manufacturing Practices Umbrella GMP's subpart

A. General provisions-excluding harvesting, storage or distribution of raw agricultural commodities; B. Building & facilities; C. Equipment; D. (Reserved); E. Production and process controls; F. (Reserved); G. Defect action levels

98

Name three amendments to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act?

Oleo Amendment, Miller Pesticide Amendment, Food Additive Amendment, and Color Additives Amendment (Nutritional Labeling and Education Act)

99

What 5 nutrients must be by law included in enriched bread?

Thiamine, Niacin, Riboflavin, Iron, Folate

100

What are 3 actions that courts might take on behalf of Food and Drug Administration against an individual, a company, or a product suspected of being in violation of the FDCA?

Injunction, penalty, seizure

101

What are 3 requirements that most standards should have to allow "safe and suitable" optional ingredients?

They must be functional; They shouldn't change the nature of the product; They shouldn't adversely affect nutritional quality.

102

What are four categories of additive substances established by the Food and Drug Administration?

GRAS, Prior Sanctioned, food additives, color additives, banned

103

What are the 3 grades of poultry?

A, B, C

104

What are the 5 (or 6 for sows) grades of pork?

U.S. No. 1, 2, 3, 4, Utility; For Sows – U.S. No. 1, 2, 3, Medium and Cull

105

What are the two general types of adulteration of foods?

Economic and Physical

106

What do the following acronyms stand for: GMP, CFR, CIP, AOAC?

GMP – good manufacturing practices; CFR – code of federal regulations; CIP – clean in place; AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists

107

What is the difference between an intentional additive and an incidental additive?

Intentional - additives which serve some specific function in food; Incidental - additives which serve no specific function in food but find their way into foods as a result of processing, packaging, and storage.

108

What organizations or agencies publish the following reference texts? a) Bacteriological Analytical Manual; b) Compendium of Methods in the Microbiological Examination of Foods; c) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products

a) Food and Drug Administration b & c) American Public Health Association

109

What years were the following laws passed? FDCA; PPIA; Food Additives Amendment; Food Color Amendment

1938; 1957; 1958; 1960

110

What years were the following laws passed? FPLA; EPIA; NLEA

1966; 1970; 1990

111

A Scottish dish that consists of the heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep and boiled in the stomach of the animal is called what?

Haggis

112

This Chinese delicacy is made from saliva of the male white-nest or black-nest swiflet.

Bird's Nest Soup

113

This Filipino dessert dish contains such unusual ingredients as kidney beans, garbanzo beans, purple yams, and plantains

Halo Halo (pronounced "hollow hollow")

114

What was the name of the two brothers who owned the first McDonalds and where was the restaurant located?

Dick and Maurice McDonald; San Bernadino, California

115

This act protects everyone who buys seed by prohibiting false labeling and advertising of seed in interstate commerce.

Federal Seed Act

116

Where will the new GMPs and HARCP rules for human food under the Food Safety Modernization Act be located in Title 21?

Part 117

117

Which US president installed the first kitchen stove in the White House?

Millard Fillmore

118

Who is credit with the invention of Haute/Grande cuisine and the chef's hat called the "toque"?

Marie-Antoine Carême

119

What year was the United States Department of Agriculture founded?

1862

120

Ingredients listed on food products must be listed in what order?

Descending order of predominance by weight

121

What is the original name of the paperboard sleeve for disposable coffee cups?

zarf

122

Who was the original Aunt Jemima?

Nancy Green

123

What are the meanings of the following letters used for USDA establishment numbers? G, I, M, P, V

G = egg product
I = Import
M = meat
P = poultry
V = voluntary inspection

124

William Marler has been involved in food safety since the 1993 Jack-in-the-Box E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. What is his profession?

Lawyer

125

What company produced a genetically modified potato called "innate" that is resistant to blight and has reduced potential for acrylamide production?

J.R. Simplot

126

Samuel Wilson, a meatpacker from New York who is most famous for supplying meat to US troops during the War of 1812, is reportedly the personification of what character?

Uncle Sam