Flashcards in Food Toxicology Deck (54)
What is a teratogen?
A substance that alters embryonic or fetal development in some manner to produce structural or functional alterations; causes birth defects
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce liver toxins known as what?
Claviceps purpurea causes what type of food poisoning?
Define a food intoxication.
The organism grows in the food producing a toxin. The toxin is consumed and causes illness
Define a toxicoinfection.
Person consumes the organism and it multiplies in the gut where it produces a toxin, and the toxin makes the person sick.
Agents which cause tumors that may be benign or malignant (cause cancer)
Give the name of a commonly used acute test for mutagenicity based on Salmonella Typhimurium.
Ames Test (Developed by Bruce Ames)
How is the histamine produced in scombroid poisoning?
Produced by bacterial decarboxylation of the generally large quantities of histidine in the fish muscles
In 1970, a Canadian chemist found what toxic element in fresh water fish?
In 1973, the largest recorded outbreak of histamine poisoning occurred. It involved 2656 people who consumed dried horse mackerel. In what country did this outbreak occur?
In what units is the LD(50) reported?
mg/kg of body weight
Minimata disease was caused by the consumption of fish containing what element?
Name of one of the toxic compounds in cassava
linamarin or lotoaustralin or isolinamarin (Cyanogenic Glucosides)
Name two fishes commonly associated with scombroid.
Tuna and mackerel
The chances for what food poisoning cannot be eliminated by reheating perishable foods that have been left out at room temperature for more than four hours?
Staphylococcus aureusfood poisoning
What are the three main stimulants found naturally in coffee, tea and cocoa?
Caffeine, Theophyllin, and Theobromine
What chemical from the oil of wormwood (once used in absinthe) causes lesions of the cerebral cortex?
What element, if ingested by humans during pregnancy, can pass through the placenta to the fetus?
What is a NOEL in toxicology?
No Effect Level
What is the breakdown product of Alar?
UDMH (Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine)
What is the cause of favism in those who consume fava beans?
Inherited deficiency of Glucose 6 Phosphate dehydrogenase
What is the difference in a toxin and a toxicant?
Toxicants are man-made chemicals and toxins are naturally occurring
What is the genus of the toxic mushroom known as the "Death Angel" and what is the name of the toxin?
Amanita; amatoxin or phallotoxin
What is the major group of enzymes in the liver that are responsible for Phase I metabolism of toxins?
Monoamine Oxidases (or could say monooxygeneases or P450 )
What is the maximum amount of aflatoxin allowed in food by FDA? Is this the lowest amount allowed in the World?
20 ppb (ng/g), 0.5 ppb for milk; No - 34 countries have lower action levels than U.S. - mostly EEC -( 0.05 ppb)
What is the most lethal of all fish poisons?
Saxitoxin or Puffer fish toxin (60 - 70% mortality)
What is the most toxic aflatoxin to humans?
What is the name of the disease that wiped out vineyards in Europe?
What is the popular trade name for daminozide?