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Flashcards in Food Toxicology Deck (54)
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1
Q

What is a teratogen?

A

A substance that alters embryonic or fetal development in some manner to produce structural or functional alterations; causes birth defects

2
Q

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce liver toxins known as what?

A

Aflatoxins

3
Q

Claviceps purpurea causes what type of food poisoning?

A

Ergotism

4
Q

Define a food intoxication.

A

The organism grows in the food producing a toxin. The toxin is consumed and causes illness

5
Q

Define a toxicoinfection.

A

Person consumes the organism and it multiplies in the gut where it produces a toxin, and the toxin makes the person sick.

6
Q

Define carcinogen.

A

Agents which cause tumors that may be benign or malignant (cause cancer)

7
Q

Give the name of a commonly used acute test for mutagenicity based on Salmonella Typhimurium.

A

Ames Test (Developed by Bruce Ames)

8
Q

How is the histamine produced in scombroid poisoning?

A

Produced by bacterial decarboxylation of the generally large quantities of histidine in the fish muscles

9
Q

In 1970, a Canadian chemist found what toxic element in fresh water fish?

A

Hg (mercury)

10
Q

In 1973, the largest recorded outbreak of histamine poisoning occurred. It involved 2656 people who consumed dried horse mackerel. In what country did this outbreak occur?

A

Japan

11
Q

In what units is the LD(50) reported?

A

mg/kg of body weight

12
Q

Minimata disease was caused by the consumption of fish containing what element?

A

Mercury

13
Q

Name of one of the toxic compounds in cassava

A

linamarin or lotoaustralin or isolinamarin (Cyanogenic Glucosides)

14
Q

Name two fishes commonly associated with scombroid.

A

Tuna and mackerel

15
Q

The chances for what food poisoning cannot be eliminated by reheating perishable foods that have been left out at room temperature for more than four hours?

A

Staphylococcus aureusfood poisoning

16
Q

What are the three main stimulants found naturally in coffee, tea and cocoa?

A

Caffeine, Theophyllin, and Theobromine

17
Q

What chemical from the oil of wormwood (once used in absinthe) causes lesions of the cerebral cortex?

A

Thujone

18
Q

What element, if ingested by humans during pregnancy, can pass through the placenta to the fetus?

A

Mercury

19
Q

What is a NOEL in toxicology?

A

No Effect Level

20
Q

What is the breakdown product of Alar?

A

UDMH (Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine)

21
Q

What is the cause of favism in those who consume fava beans?

A

Inherited deficiency of Glucose 6 Phosphate dehydrogenase

22
Q

What is the difference in a toxin and a toxicant?

A

Toxicants are man-made chemicals and toxins are naturally occurring

23
Q

What is the genus of the toxic mushroom known as the “Death Angel” and what is the name of the toxin?

A

Amanita; amatoxin or phallotoxin

24
Q

What is the major group of enzymes in the liver that are responsible for Phase I metabolism of toxins?

A

Monoamine Oxidases (or could say monooxygeneases or P450 )

25
Q

What is the maximum amount of aflatoxin allowed in food by FDA? Is this the lowest amount allowed in the World?

A

20 ppb (ng/g), 0.5 ppb for milk; No - 34 countries have lower action levels than U.S. - mostly EEC -( 0.05 ppb)

26
Q

What is the most lethal of all fish poisons?

A

Saxitoxin or Puffer fish toxin (60 - 70% mortality)

27
Q

What is the most toxic aflatoxin to humans?

A

B1

28
Q

What is the name of the disease that wiped out vineyards in Europe?

A

Phylloxera

29
Q

What is the popular trade name for daminozide?

A

Alar

30
Q

What is the term for toxins produced by molds?

A

Mycotoxins

31
Q

What is the toxic glycoside in Licorice that causes health problems when overconsumed?

A

Glycyrrhizin (hypertension, cardiac enlargement, na retention, etc.)

32
Q

What mycotoxin is produced by a mold that can grow on moist peanuts, pecans, corn and other food stuffs?

A

Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Citrinin, Tricothecenes, and others

33
Q

What quantity is defined as the dose of a substance which will kill 50% of the test subjects.

A

LD50

34
Q

What term is used to describe the allowable tolerances of natural or unavoidable foreign material in foods that does not constitute a health hazard to the public?

A

Defect Action Level

35
Q

What toxic alkaloid found in potatoes?

A

Solanine

36
Q

What toxic alkaloid found in tomatoes?

A

Tomatine

37
Q

What type botulism is mainly involved with seafood?

A

Type E

38
Q

What type of immunoglobins are involved in food allergic responses?

A

IgE

39
Q

Which foods besides fish are most often associated with histamine poisoning?

A

Fermented Foods - cheese, beer, wine, etc. (due to decarboxylation of amino acids)

40
Q

Who developed the Human Exposure/Rodent Potency (HERP) Index?

A

Bruce Ames

41
Q

Why do chelating agents increase the efficiency of antioxidants?

A

They bind trace metals that catalyze fat oxidation

42
Q

Why has FDA banned sulfites on salad bars and required the labeling of wine containing sulfites?

A

Those with asthma can have life-threatening reactions to sulfites

43
Q

Why is “glandless” cottonseed now cultivated in the United States for cottonseed meal production?

A

A highly toxic phenolic compound called Gossypol is found in the gland

44
Q

Name six of the top eight allergens found in foods.

A

Fish, Shellfish, eggs, milk, soy, peanuts, treenuts, wheat

45
Q

Overconsumption of certain foods is associated with gout; name four of these foods and explain why.

A

Beer, Wine, Alcohol, Organ Meats, Sardines, Anchovy, Herring, Meat, Yeasts, Asparagus, Mushroom, Spinach, Cauliflower; High Purine containing foods that are metabolized to uric acid

46
Q

What are 2 types of intoxication associated with consuming seafood?

A

Ciguatera, scombroid, paralytic shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning (tetrodotoxin)

47
Q

What are 3 categories of botulism?

A

Foodborne, Infant, Wound

48
Q

What are compositions and locations of exotoxins and endotoxins?

A

Exotoxin - proteins with little or no nonprotein residues, found outside of cell; Endotoxin - primarily polysaccharide and lipid complexes (lipopolysaccharides) associated with cell membrane

49
Q

What are the 3 most common types of human botulism?

A

Type A, B, E

50
Q

What are the foodborne bacterial intoxications?

A

Staphylococcal intoxication; Botulism; Bacillus cereus emetic syndrome

51
Q

What are three major types of diffusion of toxins across membranes?

A

Passive, Facilitated, Active, Translocation

52
Q

What causes rapeseed oil toxicity and how can this be prevented?

A

Erucic Acid; low EA varieties have been developed and should be used

53
Q

What is the difference between a food allergy and a food intolerance?

A

True allergy is a whole body reaction, IgE mediated; intolerance is not.

54
Q

What pink mold on celery causes a sensitization skin reaction in workers when they handle celery? What is the name of the toxin?

A

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; Bergapten (or psoralen - general term)