Flashcards in Dermatology - Fleas Deck (89)
What is the most commonly identified flea on the dog and cat?
Aside of Ctenocephalides felis, what other flea species can be found in some geographical regions of North America?
Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex simulans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea
What is the life cycle of Ctenocephalides felis?
eggs, 3 larval stages, pupa, adult
Are fleas host specific?
What is key for flea development?
microenvironment - temperature and humidity deep in a pile carpet may support survival
What disease(conditions) are caused by fleas?
mechanical irritation, anemia, they are vectors of disease, dermatological conditions, and flea allergies
What diseases are fleas carriers for?
Diplidium caninum, Yersinia pestis, FeLV (potentially), Hemobartonella
What dermatological lesions do fleas cause?
skin disease and mild-moderate pruritus caused by bitiing of the flea
What is the philosophy for controlling fleas?
Must control the flea population on the pet AND in the environment, all pets in the household should be treated, and the least toxic insecticides (that will work) should be used
What are the important properties of insecticides?
Cost, availability to the veterinarian or pet owner, esthetics to the owner, efficacy, ease of application to the pet or in the environment, and safety
What are the inert insecticides?
Fine powders, diatamacious earth, and borates
How do fine powders work?
they breech the insect's exoskeleton by chafing
What is the risk with using diatamacious earth?
it can become aerosolized and cause pulmonary disease in humans
How do borates work in flea infestations?
They are applied to the environment and act as dessicants (drying agents) and can also cause intestinal poisons if ingested
What botanicals can be used for flea control?
Pyrethrins, synthetics pyrethrins, rotenone, and citrus derivatives
What organochlorines is used for flea control?
What organophosphate is recommended as an environmental spray for flea control?
What insecticide works as a neurotoxin available as a topical pour on and what species is it approved for?
Imidocloprid (Advantage and Advantage-Multi) for use in dogs and cats over 4 months of age
What type of insecticide is K9advantix?
Imidocloprid combined with 44% permethrin - note: not labeled for cats
What is the generic name for Capstar and what does it target?
Nitenpyram - it is an orally administed insecticide that is highly affected in killing adult feeding fleas - death occurs within a few hours
What animals can be given Capstar?
Dogs and cats 4 weeks or older and at least 2 pounds
What is the generic name for Frontline, what type of insecticide is it and how does it work?
Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, it acts as a neurotoxin
How is Frontline given and to what animals?
It is available as a topical spray for dogs and cats down to 8 weeks of age
What is Frontline Plus made out of?
Fipronil in combination with methoprene
What is the generic name for Revolution, how does it work, and how is it used?
Selamectin - it is a neurotoxin recommended as a monthly topical pour on insecticide
Aside from fleas, what is Selamectin labeled for use against?
scabies, ear mites, internal parasites, and for tick control
What drugs are in Advantage Multi?
Imidocloprid and moxidectin
What is the primary role for moxidectin in Advantage Multi?
for heartworm control
What is ProMeris made out of?
Metaflumazone and amitraz