Flashcards in Hematology - Transfusions Deck (84)
True or False: Blood transfusions are used to treat disease.
false - they are supportive
What are the indications for transfusion?
Temporary replacement of red cells, platelets, and plasma proteins/factors
What are the benefits to blood component therapy?
It conserves products, allows for the most specific and safe product to be used for each animal, and minimizes transfusion volume
What are the different forms of whole blood that can be transfused?
fresh whole blood and stored whole blood
What are the different forms of blood components that can be transfused?
Packed red cells, fresh frozen plasma, frozen plasma, and platelet rich plasma/platelet concentrate
What are the criteria for plasma to be considered fresh frozen plasma?
If it is frozen in less than 8 hours and stored for less than a year
What are the criteria for plasma to be considered frozen plasma?
If it is frozen in greater than 8 hours or stored for greater than 1 year and less than 4 years
How many units of packed RBCs and fresh frozen plasma do we get from 500 mL of whole blood?
2 half units of packed RBC (125 mls each) and 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma (240 mls)
What does fresh whole blood contain?
RBCs, all plasma components, platelets, and white cells
How quickly after collection should fresh whole blood be transfused?
within 4-6 hours of collection
What is the criteria for whole blood to be stored whole blood?
If it is older than 6 hours but less than 1 month old and kept at 4 degrees celcius
What does stored whole blood contain?
RBCs and plasma - it does not contain viable platelets or labile clotting factors
What are the indications for whole blood use?
patients need multiple blood components or the patients need volume
What does packed red cells contain?
Cells and small amounts of plasma and anticoagulant that remains after the plasma is removed from one unit of whole blood
What are the indications for packed red cells?
You have a patient that was hit by their owner's car. They present collapsed with an open femoral fracture and a significantly swollen rear leg. HCT is 16%, total protein is decreased and the platelet count is normal. The patient is very shocky. What type of transfusion is preferred in this patient?
Whole blood because the dog has lost blood volume from bleeding at the site of truama and is very anemic
You have a patient that presented for lethargy and anorexia. This patient had a history of seizures, managed with phenobarbitol. They are anemic with a HCT of 9% and a normal TP. The heartrate was 150, the patient was hypotensive, weak, and 5% dehydrated. Your working diagnosis is bone marrow suppression from phenobarbitol. What type of blood product would you want to give to this patient?
Packed red cells because the patient was only missing RBCs. This patient would also be given crystalloids to handle the dehydration
What does fresh frozen plasma contain?
Coagulation factors, antithrombin and other anticoagulation factors, von Willebrand factor (vWF), albumin, and globulins
What are the indications for the use of fresh frozen plasma?
coagulation disorders resulting in hemorrhage or prophylaxis before surgery in an animal with known clotting factor deficiency
What clotting factor deficiencies would indicate the prophylaxis use of fresh frozen plasma prior to surgery?
Von Willebrand disease (congenital), Hemophilia A and B (congenital), Rodenticide toxicity (acquired), Coagulopathy due to liver disease (acquired), and DIC (acquired)
What should fresh frozen plasma not be used as a source of?
When should fresh frozen plasma not be given?
Unless you know there is bleeding
What does frozen plasma contain?
stable coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X and albumin
What are the indications for use of frozen plasma?
Coagulation deficiencies of II, VII, IX, or X resulting in active hemorrhage - this would be perfect for rodenticide cases
Where do blood products come from?
Commercial blood banks, in-house blood donors, and client owned pets (non-resident blood donors)
What is the most common indication for a transfusion?
What clinical signs in an anemic patient should indicate a transfusion?
Lethargy, tachycardia, and tachypnea
At what PCV level should you consider a transfusion?
less than 20%
What are blood groups defined by?
inherited antigens on the surface of the RBC