Endocrinology - Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Small Animal Medicine > Endocrinology - Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology - Diabetes Mellitus Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...

What are the four presentations of diabetes mellitus?

Stable and uncomplicated canine, stable and uncomplicated feline, stable and ketotic, and diabetic ketoacidotic


What history is typically associated with a stable and uncomplicated canine diabetic?

A history of excessive drinking and urination, always hungry but losing weight


What will you find on PE in a stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

They may be relatively normal and cataracts are common


How do cataracts develop?

The lens is freely permeable to glucose and is metabolized to sorbitol via aldose reductace. These are potent hydrophilic agents that cause the lens fibers to swell and rupture


What will you find on the minimum database in a stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

Unremarkable CBC, hyperglycemia, mild elevation of liver enzymes (ALP > ALT), hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia


What will you find on urinalysis in a stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

Glucosuria and variable USG


Why do 24% of diabetic dogs have bacterial UTIs with no evidence of pyuria?

Glucose may be a substrate for bacteria. Since the immune system is compromized due to the diabetic state, it allows for the bacteria to proliferate


Stable and uncomplicated canine diabetics are ______ dependent.

insulin - they are 'type 1' diabetics


In order to treat stable and uncomplicated canine diabetics, we must provide exogenous sources. What are the exogenous insulin types that can be given to dogs?

NPH, Lente, PZI, and long-acting analogs


True or False: Normoglycemia is our goal of therapy in stable, uncomplicated canine diabetics.



What are the goals of therapy in a stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

Eliminate the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus and reduce the risk of complications


What complications are associated with stable, uncomplicated canine diabetics?

ketoacidosis, infection, and neuropathy


What should be your insulin of choice when initiating treatment in a stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

NPH or Lente


What is the intial insulin dosage in the stable, uncomplicated canine diabetic?

0.25-0.5 units/kg subcutaneously every 12 hours


When should a recheck occur after diagnosis of stable and uncomplicated diabetes in the dog?

In about 1-2 weeks - want to recheck clinical signs, BG curve, and urine


What client education is important when their dog has been newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus?

Teach them insulin handling and storage, practice injections, inform them of the signs of hypoglycemia, and make sure they know the animal has to eat prior to giving insulin


A majority of feline diabetics are of what 'type'?

Type 2 diabetes - there is a relative insulin deficiency


What is an important risk factor for feline diabetes?



What condition is more problematic in the feline diabetic versus the canine diabetic?

stress hyperglycemia - it affects diagnosis and monitoring


What complication is more common in the feline diabetic?

diabetic neuropathy


Is dietary management more important in the canine or feline diabetic?

the feline


What are the goals of therapy in a diabetic feline?

Eliminate clinical signs, reduce risk of complications, and promote diabetic remission if possible


What are the first choices of exogenous insulin in the stable feline diabetic?

PZI or glargine


What is the initial insulin dosage in the stable feline diabetic?

1 Unit/cat SC BID


Aside from insulin therapy, what is important in initial therapy of the stable feline diabetic?

Implement dietary management


What oral hypoglycemic dug is an option for feline diabetics?

Glipizide - only successful in 1/3 of cats


When is the use of Glipizide indicated in feline diabetic patients?

When the owners are unwilling or unable to give insulin


What is the ideal diet for a feline diabetic?

high protein, low-carbohydrate diets


What is different between cats and dogs about insulin administration and feeding?

Meal feeding at the time of insulin administration is not essential in the cat


What is diabetic remission in cats?

When the cat is able to maintian normoglycemia without insulin

Decks in Small Animal Medicine Class (100):