What are the goals to a neurologic examination?
To determine if an animal has a neurologic problem To determine where the problem is located in the nervous system To communicate appropriate disease conditions resulting in the clinical abnormalities
What needs to be evaluated during a neurologic examination?
Appearance and posture, movement, and awareness (i.e mental acuity)
What are the different classifications of posture associated with neurologic disease?
extended or flexed
What does an extended posture indicate?
the neurologic process is located in the central nervous system or the muscle
What does flexed limb postures (non-weight bearing) indicate?
Pain - is it neurologic or musculoskeletal
What does a head tilt indicate?
there is a vestibular problem
What does a head turn indicate?
There is a supratentorial problem
What is cranial nerve I associated with?
What is cranial nerve II associated with?
What is cranial nerve III associated with?
eye position/movement/pupil constriction
What is cranial nerve IV associated with?
What is cranial nerve V associated with?
Sensation in/around the head/face and muscles of mastication
What is cranial nerve VI associated with?
What is cranial nerve VII associated with?
muscles of facial expression
What is cranial nerve VIII associated with?
balance, head proprioception
What is cranial nerve IX associated with?
What is cranial nerve X associated with?
What is cranial nerve XI associated with?
lateral cervical muscles
What is cranial nerve XII associated with?
What is anisocoria?
unequal pupil size
What is strabismus?
abnormal eye position
What cranial nerves is strabismus associated with?
CN 3, 4, and 6
What cranial nerve can a corneal ulcer be associated with?
What cranial nerve is facial paralysis associated with?
What CN does the palpebral reflex test?
The sensory function of CN V and the motor function of CN VII
If you notice that there is some abnormal tone to a patients tongue, which CN is affected?
Over-movements (i.e. exaggerations) are typically associated with lesions where?
the central nervous system
Under-movements are typically associated with an issue where?
Its either a pain problem or a weakness indicating lower motor neuron disease