Which of the following diseases are the TOP 2 most common causes of systemic hypertension in DOGS? (choose 2)
B) Chronic kidney disease
B and F
Which of the following diseases are the TOP 2 most common causes of systemic hypertension in CATS? (choose 2)
B) Chronic kidney disease
F) Idiopathic cystitis
B and C
hich of the following are among the "target organs" negatively affected by systemic hypertension? (choose 2)
E) GI tract
A and D
Which of the following potential treatments for systemic hypertension ACTIVATES the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)?
Are HCM and HOCM different diseases, or morphologic variants of the same disease?
HOCM is a morphologic variant of HCM characterized by a dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Which is more likely to be detected on physical examination: HCM or HOCM?
Which drug might you be MORE LIKELY to give to a cat with HOCM compared to a cat with HCM?
What 2 cat breeds have a known genetic predisposition to H(O)CM (causative genetic mutation identified)?
Maine Coons and Ragdolls
What are the 3 most common congenital heart diseases in DOGS?
PDA, pulmonic stenosis, subaortic stenosis
What are the 2 most common congenital heart diseases in CATS?
AV valve dysplasia
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Does a LEFT-TO-RIGHT shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) cause LEFT- or RIGHT-sided congestive heart failure (CHF)?
Which 2 of the following characteristics could be consistent with an "innocent" puppy or kitten murmur?
A) Grade III/VI or softer
B) L basilar location
C) Diastolic timing
D) Patient age >6 months
E) R apical location
A and B
A 10-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presents to your clinic for dyspnea. Which of the following test results would INCREASE your index of suspicion for congestive heart failure as the cause of the patient’s dyspnea?
A) TFAST showing pleural effusion
B) TXR showing VHS of 7.8
C) NTproBNP SNAP test negative
D) S4 gallop on cardiac auscultation
A 12-week-old female intact beagle presents for wellness examination and rabies vaccine. You auscult a grade V/VI left basilar systolic heart murmur. Based on the most likely diagnosis for this patient, which of the following is the most likely clinical outcome if this patient’s heart disease is left untreated?
A) Pulmonary hypertension
B) Caval syndrome
A 12-year-old male castrated Labrador retriever presents for a wellness geriatric examination. Routine bloodwork reveals a BUN of 35 mg/dL (reference range 10-30 mg/dL) and creatinine of 1.6 (reference range 0.5-1.5 mg/dL). Urine specific gravity is 1.012, and urine dipstick reveals 3+ protein with inactive sediment. Systolic blood pressure is 190mmHg while the dog is lying calmly on the examination table. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment and followup plan?
A) Start an ACE inhibitor (benazepril or enalapril) or telmisartan; recheck blood pressure in 1-2 weeks and add amlodipine if blood pressure remains elevated
B) Recheck blood pressure in 1-2 weeks and consider antihypertensive therapy if blood pressure remains elevated at that time
C) Start amlodipine; recheck blood pressure in 1-2 weeks and increase dose of amlodipine if blood pressure remains elevated
D) Start amlodipine; recheck blood pressure in 1-2 weeks and consider adding an ACE inhibitor (benazepril or enalapril) or telmisartan if blood pressure remains
A 7-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presents for dyspnea and is diagnosed with congestive heart failure (pulmonary edema) secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Which of the following medications would be part of your initial at-home treatment plan? (choose all that apply)
D) Dietary sodium restriction
G) ACE inhibitor (enalapril or benazepril)
A, D, E, G, I