Flashcards in Unit 3 - Dyspnea and Abnormal Breathing Deck (71)
What zone makes up the majority of the lung volume?
the respiratory zone
What structures are in the respiratory zone?
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs
What structures are in the conducting zone?
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles
What are the anatomical disease divisions of the respiratory system?
nasal and sinuses, upper airway, lower airway, parenchymal, and pleural space
What structures make up the upper airway?
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
What structures make up the lower airway?
respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
It is best to auscultate the lungs in a _____ ____.
How should a patient be positioned for auscultation?
standing, with the mouth closed
How do bronchial sounds sound?
harsh, hollow, and blowing
Where are bronchial sounds loudest?
over the trachea
Are bronchial sounds inspiratory or expiratory?
How do vesicular sounds sound?
Where are vesicular sounds made?
airflow through lobar bronchi - peripheral
Are vesicular sounds inspiratory or expiratory?
What are the types of abnormal breath sounds?
crackles, wheezes, stertor, and stridor
What do crackles sound like?
discontinous popping sounds
What is the cause of crackles?
snapping open of small airways that have collapsed or accumulated fluid/debris
When is the timing of crackles?
How are crackles characterized?
moist vs. dry, and fine vs. course
What are the differentials for crackles?
pulmonary edema, pneumonia, or fibrosis (dry, stiff airways)
What do wheezes sound like?
continous, whistling musical sounds
What is the cause of wheezes?
airflow through constricted or narrowed airways
When is the timing of wheezes?
What are the differentials for wheezes?
lower airway inflammatory disease or an anaphylactic reaction
What do stertor sounds sound like?
snoring, snorting, and snuffling noise that can be heard without a stethoscope
What is the cause of stertor?
upper airway obstruction of airflow due to excess tissue or secretions
When is the timing of stertor?
Stertor suggests that diseases is located where?
in the nasal cavity and/or the nasopharynx
What are the differentials for stertor?
Brachycephalic syndrome, nasal congestion/infiltration, nasopharyngeal polyps, nasal/nasopharyngeal neoplasia, inflammatory/infectious rhinitis, and nasal/nasopharyngeal foreign body