What are some advantages to using echo?
Useful for assessing cardiac structure AND function, provides definitive diagnosis of most cardiac diseases, noninvasive
What are disadvantages of echo?
Requires expensive equiment and technical expertise
How does echo work?
High frequency sound waves are emitted from a transducer and are reflected/refracted/absorbed by tissues
What determines the proportion of reflected waves (returing to transducer)?
What has the greatest to least acoustic impedance?
Fluid > soft tissue > fibrous tissue > solids (bone)
What are the 4 echo modalities?
2D, M-mode, color doppler, spectral doppler
What is M-mode?
Still image of single 1D slice throughout multiple cardiac cycle
What is color doppler?
Codes blood flow with color indicating direction
What is spectral doppler?
Measures velocity of blood flow
What are the 3 sites on which the transducer can be placed?
R parasternal, L apical, Subcostal
What orientations can you hold the transducer at?
RV free wall
LV free wall
The LV should be ____ the size and thickness of the RV in long-axis.
LA and LV should be roughly the same maximum _____.
_____ and _____ should be roughly the same diameter.
LA and Ao
What does it mean if the doppler is showing "party colors"?
There is turbulent, high-velocity flow in that area
What does blue on the doppler mean?
What does red on the doppler mean?
LV papillary muscles