Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (16)
define diabetes mellitus..
a disorder of the metabolism that causes excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of urine.
what does mellitus mean?
- sweet (due to sweet smelling urine that has high sugar content)
what does diabetes mean?
which cells are responsible for producing insulin?
the islet cells in the endocrine portion of the pancreas
what are the 5 types of diabetes mellitus?
- type 1
- type 2
- other causes
what % of diabetes is type 1 and type 2?
type 1 = 10%
type 2 = 90%
what is the worry with gestational diabetes mellitus?
- that it may progress into type 2 even after birth
4 facts about type 1 diabetes mellitus
1. auto immune condition (destruction of the islet cells)
2. affects younger patients
3. insulin dependant
4. genetic element
2 facts about type 2 diabetes mellitus
- unusual to be diagnosed under 40
- insulin resistant
what are the two ways that insulin can be administered to those with type 1 diabetes mellitus?
2. automatic pump (subcutaneous delivery of insulin when blood sugar at a certain level and info is blue toothed to the pump)
when do type 1 diabetics need to inject insulin?
- after eating carbohydrate (not necessary if a meal contains no carbs)
what normally happens in the body (i.e. when not insulin resistant)?
the insulin binds to the receptors allowing glucose to enter the cells
what happens in the body when insulin resistance has occurred?
- insulin binds to the receptor but not as responsive to insulin molecule.
- less glucose then enters the cell
- glucose build up in the blood
what are 2 causes of insulin resistance?
1. ectopic fat accumulation & increase FFA circulation
2. Increase inflammatory mediators
what does IRS-1 stand for?
insulin receptor substrate 1