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Flashcards in Renal disease Deck (60)
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1

The 3 main components of the renal tract are?

- kidneys
- ureter
- bladder

2

what are the 3 main functions of the renal system?

1. excretory function
2. acid base balance
3. endocrine function

3

what is the function of erythropoietin?

to stimulate red blood cell production

4

what are the 3 endocrine functions of the renal system?

- produce erythropoietin
- activate vit D
- control blood pressure

5

what is polyuria?

abnormally large production of urine

6

what is oliguria?

abnormally small amount of urine produced

7

what is anuria?

the failure of the kidneys to produce urine

8

when blood is present in urine, this is called?

haematuria

9

proteinuria is when...

there is abnormally high protein levels detected in the urine

10

what is dysuria?

painful or difficult urination

11

A high urea content in urine is called..?

uraemia

12

hyperkalaemia is..?

high potassium content

13

dialysis is defined as...

renal replacement therapy

14

name the 4 ways to investigate the renal system.

1. urine
2. blood
3. imaging
4. tissue

15

what are the 3 tests that can be done to investigate the urine?

1. dipstick
2. microscopy
3. microbiology

16

what will show up in the microscopy?

abnormal cells of crystals

17

what are the 4 things tested for in a dipstick test

- white blood cells
- blood
- protein
- glucose

18

name 3 electrolytes

1. potassium
2. urea
3. ceratinine

19

what does GFR stand for?

glomerular filtration rate

20

what are 3 categories used to grade renal failure

- mild
- moderate
- severe

21

what are the GFR ranges of each of these categories?

mild = 20-50ml/min
moderate = 10-20 ml/min
severe =

22

4 ways to image the renal tract?

- plain radiograph
- intravenous urogram
- ultrasound
- MRI

23

what can hyperkalaemia cause?

cardiac arrest

24

if there is an excretion failure and uraemia occurs what are 6 possible consequences/signs? §

- malaise
- anorexia
- reduced immunity
- reduced platelet function
- itch
- eventually coma/death

25

what is it called when you have a life threatening acid-base balance possibly caused by renal disease?

acidosis

26

explain how a patient may get renal osteodystrophy?

renal failure = lack of vitamin D activation = bone disease in chronic situations

27

give 5 basic causes of renal failure.

1. systemic disease
2. hypovolaemia
3. drugs
4. infections
5. obstruction

28

what are 5 systemic diseases that can commonly lead to renal failure?

- cancer
- diabetes
- hypertension
- atherosclerosis
- auto-immune (glomerulonephritis)

29

define hypovolaemia?

decreased volume of circulatory blood

30

what are 3 causes of hypovolaemia?

1. massive haemorrhage
2. sepsis
3. O+V

31

name 4 drugs that can exacerbate pre-existing renal disease.

- NSAIDs
- tetracycline
- diuretics
- ACE inhibitors/angiotensin 2 blockers

32

name 4 possible obstructions that can cause renal failure?

- prostate
- stones
- abdominal or pelvic masses
- polycystic kidney disease

33

true or false - polycystic kidney disease is genetic.

True

34

what are the two forms of renal failure?

-acute
-chronic

35

what is acute renal failure defined as...

the RAPID LOSS of renal FUNCTION

36

what can the urine output be like in acute renal failure?

- normal
- low
- absent

37

what are the 4 things that make acute renal failure life threatening?

- hyperkalaemia
- uraemia
- fluid retention
- hypertension

38

is acute renal failure reversible?

yes often

39

how is ACUTE renal failure commonly brought about?

pre-exisiting diseased kidneys encounter an acute insult such as NSAIDs

40

3 stages of management of acute renal failure.

1. identify and manage cause
2. treat effects (K, fluid removal, replacement)
3. dialysis - sometimes

41

what is chronic renal failure defined as?

gradual progression of renal impairment

42

what does ESRD stand for?

end stage renal disease

43

what is the GFR for ESRD?

5% of normal

44

what are 2 factors that influence the progression rate of CRF?

- underlying cause
- modifying factors

45

what are the 6 main causes of renal disease?

- diabetes
- hypertension
- atherosclerosis
- chronic renal infection
- polycystic kidney disease
- glomerulonephritis

46

what are the 4 effects of CRF?

- uraemia
- fluid retention
- lack of erythropoietin
- renal osteodystrophy

47

give 5 consequences of uraemia (high urea levels in blood)

- reduced immunity
- reduced platelet function
- malaise
- nausea
- itch

48

what are the two types of dialysis?

1. haemodialysis (blood)
2. peritoneal dialysis

49

3 reasons why transplant is the optimal treatment for renal disease?

- normal renal function
- no dietary restrictions
- normal energy and fertility

50

3 issues with renal transplant are...

- rejection (acute or chronic)
- immunosuppresants required
- high cardiovascular mortality

51

what are two main disadvantages of immunosuppresants?

- increased infection risk
- increased risk of malignancy

52

what are 3 urinary tract diseases?

- urinary tract infections
- urinary tract obstruction
- urinary tract malignancy

53

which type of bacteria usually causes cystitis?

gram -ve bacilli ie E.coli

54

what are 4 main symptoms of UTI?

- dysuria
- frequency
- cloudy/offensive smelling urine
- suprapubic pain

55

2 forms of treatment for UTIs? -

- increased fluid intake
- antibiotics

56

what are the tests to detect a UTI?

- dipstick indicator
- microscopy, culture and sensitivity

57

what are 3 possible obstructions of the urinary tract?

- prostate
- renal calculi (stones)
- external compression (abdominal or pelvic malignancy)

58

what % of the population will experience renal calculi?

5%

59

what are the symptoms and treatment options for renal calculi?

Extremely painful!
- give them time to pass
- surgery
- lithotripsy (ultrasound shock waves)

60

what are the main dental aspects of renal disease?

- take care with prescribing NSAIDs
- growth/tooth eruption delayed in children = secondary to anaemia
- prone to post op infection/bleeding
- oral opportunistic infections/stomatitis
- renal osteodystrophy
- avoid regional blocks if severe bleeding tendency
- CRF = halitosis, dry mouth, metallic taste
- calculus accumulation
- oral ulceration due to anaemia
- secondary parathyroidism = giant cell lesion
- osseus lesions may occur
- salivary gland swelling