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Flashcards in Addiction Deck (13)
1

what are 6 characteristics of dependence?

1. difficulty in controlling use of drug (onset/termination/level of consumption)

2. increasing tolerance for drug (declining tolerance as a late phenomenon)

3. physiological withdrawal state on cessation or use of drug to avoid withdrawal

4. strong desire or sense of compulsion to alcohol

5. progressive neglect of other interests

6. persisting with use despite clear evidence of harmful consequences that the user is aware of

2

what is the key neuroscience point behind addiction?

the increase in dopamine activity in the mesolimbic (reward) pathway

3

what happens to this mesolimbic pathway with increased use levels of drug exposure?

they become less responsive and as a result level of stimulation increases to maintain reward

4

what is said to cause withdrawal in chronic use of drug?

neuroadaptation

5

neuroscience - what causes relapse behaviour?

drug use leads to reorganisation of synaptic connections with strengthening of pathways

6

what are the 4 'L' s that summarise harm due to substances?

LIVER - heath effects

LOVER - relationships

LIVELIHOOD - work

LAW - offending

7

what % of all general medical and psychiatric hospital admissions are alcohol related?

25%

8

what % of those with hep C have got it from IV drug use?

85%

9

How many deaths each year in the UK is alcohol or drug related?

20,000 (1 in 3 of all UK deaths)

10

What are the 4 main causes of death as a result of alcohol and drug related problems?

- accidents/injury (including suicide)
- liver disease
- cardiovascular disease
- cancers (upper GI, liver, breast)

11

how does alcohol and drug related problems directly affec relationships?

involved in
- 60% of murders
- 60%+ of domestic violence

12

what % of custodial sentences are alcohol related?

25%

13

which group has the highest alcohol related mortality?

the most deprived areas