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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (77)
1

define atherosclerosis

a build up of lipid rich 'plaques' on the inner walls of arteries

2

what are the 4 types of ischemic heart disease?

1. angina
2. heart attacks (unstable angina & acute coronary syndrome)
3. arrhythmia
4 heart failure

3

what are the 2 consequences for atherosclerosis?

1. ischemia (progressive narrowing)
2. infarction (due to plaque rupture)

4

what are the 'big 5' risk factors for atherosclerosis?

1. smoking
2. high cholesterol
3. high blood pressure
4. diabetes
5. genes

5

who are at high risk of familial hypercholesterolaemia?

the young

6

what is the max % reduction in choesterol due to diet?

15%

7

types of food to reduce high cholesterol are...

fruit and veg
nuts
soya food
oats and barley
food with unsaturated fats

8

what medication is given to patients with high cholesterol?

statins

9

what are statins classfication?

lipid regulating drugs

10

what are 2 relevant side effects of statins?

- GI disturbance
- nasopharyngitis

11

what is the normal blood pressure?

120/80 (systolic/diastolic)

12

high blood pressure is diagnosed when the systolic pressure is >? or the diastolic pressure is >?

> 160 or >90

13

what is the incidence of hypertension in western society?

15-20%

14

what are the two types of hypertension?

primary (essential) and secondary

15

primary hypertension is less/more common than secondary hypertension?

more

16

what are 4 factors relating to primary hypertension?

- obesity
- alcohol
- high salt diet
- genetic

17

what are the 2 factors that cause secondary hypertension?

1. kidneys not working
2. hormone excess

18

when are you likely to get symptoms from hypertension?

if it is very very high eg 240/130

19

what symptoms of hypertension can you get?

- fits
- confusion
- headache
- breathlessness
- chest pain

20

what are 5 drugs in management of hypertension?

- ACE inhibitors
- B-blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Diuretics
- angiotension II antagonist

21

4 lifestyle changes required in patients who have hypertension

1. cut out alcohol
2. low salt diet
3. lose weight
4. take exercise

22

what is the normal total cholesterol?

23

define peripheral vascular disease.

- atherosclerosis affecting the peripheral vessels esp lower limbs and abdominal aorta

24

what are the symptoms of chronic peripheral vascular disease?

leg pain when walking a long distance especially in calf

25

what are they symptoms of acute peripheral vascular disease?

leg pain at rest
no sensation (numb)
cannot move
pale, cold
(a medical emergency)

26

3 ways to manage peripheral vascular disease

1. risk factor management
2. exercise program
3. surgery

27

what are the 2 surgery options for peripheral vascular disease?

stent
bypass graft

28

what category of people are at high risk of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

men >65

29

what are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

nil or vague abdominal pain

(on rupture) severe abdominal pain & collapse

30

what is the mortality rate for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

50-90%

31

define angina

the narrowing of the coronary arteries = ischemia

32

what are the typical signs of angina?

- crushing central chest pain which may radiate down left arm
- may also have breathlessness

33

what is an atypical sign of angina?

- jaw
- back
- upper abdomen pain

34

when would angina be classified as unstable?

- pain at rest
- unpredictable onset
- increased frequency with reduced effort

35

angina is closely related with...

physical stress

36

3 investigations to diagnose angina

- ECG
- ECG & radiological investigation with exersice
- coronary angiogram

37

symptoms of a myocardial infarction

- central crushing chest pain that is usually worse than angina
- breathlessness
- nausea
- sweating
- feeling of imminent death
- cardiac arrest

38

what are the 2 types of structural heart disease?

1. heart failure
2. vascular disease

39

what investigations do you carry out to test for structural heart disease?

- ECG
- Chest X-ray
- echocardiogram (chest ultrasound)

40

5 causes of structural heart failure?

1. ischaemic heart disease
2. hypertension
3. valvular heart disease
4. alcohol excess
5. many rare condition

41

pump failure leads to oedema which causes what 2 things?

breathlessness on exertion or at rest

and

swelling at the peripheries

42

what are the treatment stages of heart failure?

1. address underlying cause
2. medication
3. surgical

43

what are the 4 medications that would be given for heart failure?

- ACE inhibitors
- Beta-blockers
- Diuretics
- digoxin

44

what are the 3 surgical options for heart failure?

- CABG/PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) ONLY if pre-existing angina/valvular disease

- rarely transplant

- pacemaker

45

what are the dental aspects of heart failure?

- avoid tx if unstable condition

- polypharmacy common with these patients (drug side effect and interactions)

- avoid NSAIDs as they can cause fluid retention

- caution when lying patient flat

- acute heart failure presenting in dental chair (ABCDE)

46

what is the pathophysiology of VALVULAR heart failure?
- what is the side most affected?
- what valves can be affected?
- what can cause heart failure?
- can it be congenital?
- can it be age related?


- left side most affected
- aortic/mitral valves affected
- causes = infective endocarditis & rheumatic fever
- can be congenital
- often age related

47

what is rheumatic fever?

- complication of strep infection (often in childhood)
- increasingly rare

48

what is regurgitation in the cardiac sense?

loss of valve integrity
- leaky
- becomes 'floppy'
(HEART FAILURE)

49

what is stenosis?

the narrowing of valve that obstructs the flow
(INADEQUATE PUMP OUTPUT FAILURE)

50

what are the treatment options for valvular heart disease?

- medication (ACE inhibitors/Beta-blockers/diuretic/digoxin)

- surgery = Valve replacement (porcelain/metal) - have the potential to thrombose if inadequate anti-coagulation

51

what is the ideal INR for patients who have a metal heart valves?

>3

52

what is a normal cardiac rhythm called?

sinus rhythm

53

what is an abnormal cardiac rhythm called?

arrhythmia

54

name the 4 arrhythmias

1. irregular
2. tachyarrhythmia (too fast)
3. bradyarrhythmia (too slow)
4. abnormal beat conduction

55

give 5 symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias

- nil
- palpitations
- chest pain
- heart failure
- syncope (temporary loss in BP causing unconsciousness)

56

what is the other name for irregular cardiac arrhythmias?

atrial fibrillation

57

what is the incidence of atrial fibrillation?

common (10% of elderly)

58

is atrial fibrillation symptomatic?

often not

59

what is atrial fibrillation associated with?

CVD - angina, hypertension, heart failure

60

what is the treatment for atrial fibrillation?

medication and rarely surgery

61

what is the worry with atrial fibrillation?

it comes with an increased risk of stroke so anticoagulants should be prescribed

62

name a type of tachyarrhythmia

supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)

63

what is the incidence of SVT?

common ( in otherwise well people )

64

is SVT dangerous?

Benign unless wolff-parkinson white syndrome

65

what is wolff parkinson white syndrome?

a congenital condition where an extra electrical connection is present

66

what symptoms can you get from SVT? and when are they commonly present?

- palpitations
- breathlessness
- chest pain

caffeine, injections, anxiety

67

what is the the treatment of SVT?

drugs and surgery to prevent

vagal manouveres, carotid sinus massage, and drugs (adenosine) at time

68

when is a resting heart rate considered too fast?

> 100bpm

69

when is a resting heart rate considered too slow?

70

at what heart rate would a patient experience blackout/dizziness?

71

what are 4 causes of bradycardia?

- ischaemia
- age
- drugs
- physiological (ie fit athletes)

72

what is the treatment for bradycardia?

1. remove underlying cause
2. may require pacemaker

73

abnormal conduction is also known as?

ventricular arrhythmia/vantricular tachycardia

74

is abnormal conduction serious?

always a medical emergency (peri-arrest rhythm)

75

what are the 4 causes of abnormal conduction (ventricular arrhythmia)?

- ischaemic heart disease (incl heart attack)
- drugs
- congenital
- electrolyte disturbance

76

what are the symptoms of abnormal conduction?

- breathlessness
- dizzy
- chest pain
- palpitations
- cardiorespiratory arrest

77

what is ventricular fibrillation always?

cardiorespiratory arrest