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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (77)
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1

define atherosclerosis

a build up of lipid rich 'plaques' on the inner walls of arteries

2

what are the 4 types of ischemic heart disease?

1. angina
2. heart attacks (unstable angina & acute coronary syndrome)
3. arrhythmia
4 heart failure

3

what are the 2 consequences for atherosclerosis?

1. ischemia (progressive narrowing)
2. infarction (due to plaque rupture)

4

what are the 'big 5' risk factors for atherosclerosis?

1. smoking
2. high cholesterol
3. high blood pressure
4. diabetes
5. genes

5

who are at high risk of familial hypercholesterolaemia?

the young

6

what is the max % reduction in choesterol due to diet?

15%

7

types of food to reduce high cholesterol are...

fruit and veg
nuts
soya food
oats and barley
food with unsaturated fats

8

what medication is given to patients with high cholesterol?

statins

9

what are statins classfication?

lipid regulating drugs

10

what are 2 relevant side effects of statins?

- GI disturbance
- nasopharyngitis

11

what is the normal blood pressure?

120/80 (systolic/diastolic)

12

high blood pressure is diagnosed when the systolic pressure is >? or the diastolic pressure is >?

> 160 or >90

13

what is the incidence of hypertension in western society?

15-20%

14

what are the two types of hypertension?

primary (essential) and secondary

15

primary hypertension is less/more common than secondary hypertension?

more

16

what are 4 factors relating to primary hypertension?

- obesity
- alcohol
- high salt diet
- genetic

17

what are the 2 factors that cause secondary hypertension?

1. kidneys not working
2. hormone excess

18

when are you likely to get symptoms from hypertension?

if it is very very high eg 240/130

19

what symptoms of hypertension can you get?

- fits
- confusion
- headache
- breathlessness
- chest pain

20

what are 5 drugs in management of hypertension?

- ACE inhibitors
- B-blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Diuretics
- angiotension II antagonist

21

4 lifestyle changes required in patients who have hypertension

1. cut out alcohol
2. low salt diet
3. lose weight
4. take exercise

22

what is the normal total cholesterol?

23

define peripheral vascular disease.

- atherosclerosis affecting the peripheral vessels esp lower limbs and abdominal aorta

24

what are the symptoms of chronic peripheral vascular disease?

leg pain when walking a long distance especially in calf

25

what are they symptoms of acute peripheral vascular disease?

leg pain at rest
no sensation (numb)
cannot move
pale, cold
(a medical emergency)

26

3 ways to manage peripheral vascular disease

1. risk factor management
2. exercise program
3. surgery

27

what are the 2 surgery options for peripheral vascular disease?

stent
bypass graft

28

what category of people are at high risk of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

men >65

29

what are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

nil or vague abdominal pain

(on rupture) severe abdominal pain & collapse

30

what is the mortality rate for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

50-90%