Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (77)
a build up of lipid rich 'plaques' on the inner walls of arteries
what are the 4 types of ischemic heart disease?
2. heart attacks (unstable angina & acute coronary syndrome)
4 heart failure
what are the 2 consequences for atherosclerosis?
1. ischemia (progressive narrowing)
2. infarction (due to plaque rupture)
what are the 'big 5' risk factors for atherosclerosis?
2. high cholesterol
3. high blood pressure
who are at high risk of familial hypercholesterolaemia?
what is the max % reduction in choesterol due to diet?
types of food to reduce high cholesterol are...
fruit and veg
oats and barley
food with unsaturated fats
what medication is given to patients with high cholesterol?
what are statins classfication?
lipid regulating drugs
what are 2 relevant side effects of statins?
- GI disturbance
what is the normal blood pressure?
high blood pressure is diagnosed when the systolic pressure is >? or the diastolic pressure is >?
> 160 or >90
what is the incidence of hypertension in western society?
what are the two types of hypertension?
primary (essential) and secondary
primary hypertension is less/more common than secondary hypertension?
what are 4 factors relating to primary hypertension?
- high salt diet
what are the 2 factors that cause secondary hypertension?
1. kidneys not working
2. hormone excess
when are you likely to get symptoms from hypertension?
if it is very very high eg 240/130
what symptoms of hypertension can you get?
- chest pain
what are 5 drugs in management of hypertension?
- ACE inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers
- angiotension II antagonist
4 lifestyle changes required in patients who have hypertension
1. cut out alcohol
2. low salt diet
3. lose weight
4. take exercise
what is the normal total cholesterol?
define peripheral vascular disease.
- atherosclerosis affecting the peripheral vessels esp lower limbs and abdominal aorta
what are the symptoms of chronic peripheral vascular disease?
leg pain when walking a long distance especially in calf
what are they symptoms of acute peripheral vascular disease?
leg pain at rest
no sensation (numb)
(a medical emergency)
3 ways to manage peripheral vascular disease
1. risk factor management
2. exercise program
what are the 2 surgery options for peripheral vascular disease?
what category of people are at high risk of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
what are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
nil or vague abdominal pain
(on rupture) severe abdominal pain & collapse