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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (98)
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1

Define impaired consciousness.

the loss of normal level of awareness

2

what is the spectrum of impaired consciousness? from ? to ?

mild confusion to unrousable coma

3

what does GCS stand for?

glasgow coma scale

4

what is the minimum and maximum scores on the GCS?

3 - 15

5

what are the 3 subsections in the GCS?

- movement
- speech
- eye opening

6

how many points can you get in movement in GCS?

6

7

how many points can you get in speech in GCS?

5

8

how many points can you get in eye opening in GCS?

4

9

The lower the GCS score, the...

less conscious (the greater the impaired consciousness)

10

what does AVPU stand for?

Alert
Verbal
Pain
Unresponsive

11

give the 2 broad causes of impaired consciousness.

- structural damage
- global failure

12

what are the 2 types of structural damage? causing impaired c

1. external (head injury)
2. internal (stroke, tumour, abscess etc)

13

what are the 4 types of global damage? causing impaired c

- metabolism
- infection
- seizure
- drugs & toxins

14

name 3 types of infections affecting the brain.

- meningitis
- malaria
- encephalitis

15

name 3 other severe infections that could affect the brain.

- urine
- GI
- pneumonia

16

Examples of drugs that can cause impaired conscious are..

- alcohol
- opiates
- 'recreational drugs'
- anti-depressants
- anti-epileptics
- tranquilliser
- benzodiazepines

17

the 3 stages of treatment for impaired consciousness are..

1 - ABCDE
2 - Identify causes
3 - treat cause

18

define epilepsy

excessive electrical discharge in the brain

19

what are the 2 clinical features of epilepsy?

- focal (partial) seizures
- generalised seizures

20

what are the 2 types of focal seizure?

- simple and complex

21

indications of a simple focal seizure?

shaking down one side

22

indications of a complex focal seizure?

1st an aura
2nd odd behaviour (lip smacking, staring, odd posture, "out of it")

23

name 4 generalised seizures?

1. tonic/clonic
2. petit mal
3. myoclonic
4. atonic

24

what is a petit mal seizure and who do they effect?

absence seizure in children (staring into space for 10 sec)

25

what happens during a myoclonic seizure?

limbs jerking and collapse

26

what happens in a atonic seizure?

limbs collapse

27

what are some causes of epilepsy?

primary - hereditary
secondary
- structural damage
- metabolic damage

28

3 ways to investigate epilepsy?

- blood tests
- brain imaging
- EEG

29

2 ways to treat epilepsy

1. drugs
2. surgery

30

name 4 drugs that can be given to treat epilepsy?

- phenytoin
- carbamazepine
- sodium valproate
- lamatorigine