Flashcards in Neurology Deck (98)
Define impaired consciousness.
the loss of normal level of awareness
what is the spectrum of impaired consciousness? from ? to ?
mild confusion to unrousable coma
what does GCS stand for?
glasgow coma scale
what is the minimum and maximum scores on the GCS?
3 - 15
what are the 3 subsections in the GCS?
- eye opening
how many points can you get in movement in GCS?
how many points can you get in speech in GCS?
how many points can you get in eye opening in GCS?
The lower the GCS score, the...
less conscious (the greater the impaired consciousness)
what does AVPU stand for?
give the 2 broad causes of impaired consciousness.
- structural damage
- global failure
what are the 2 types of structural damage? causing impaired c
1. external (head injury)
2. internal (stroke, tumour, abscess etc)
what are the 4 types of global damage? causing impaired c
- drugs & toxins
name 3 types of infections affecting the brain.
name 3 other severe infections that could affect the brain.
Examples of drugs that can cause impaired conscious are..
- 'recreational drugs'
the 3 stages of treatment for impaired consciousness are..
1 - ABCDE
2 - Identify causes
3 - treat cause
excessive electrical discharge in the brain
what are the 2 clinical features of epilepsy?
- focal (partial) seizures
- generalised seizures
what are the 2 types of focal seizure?
- simple and complex
indications of a simple focal seizure?
shaking down one side
indications of a complex focal seizure?
1st an aura
2nd odd behaviour (lip smacking, staring, odd posture, "out of it")
name 4 generalised seizures?
2. petit mal
what is a petit mal seizure and who do they effect?
absence seizure in children (staring into space for 10 sec)
what happens during a myoclonic seizure?
limbs jerking and collapse
what happens in a atonic seizure?
what are some causes of epilepsy?
primary - hereditary
- structural damage
- metabolic damage
3 ways to investigate epilepsy?
- blood tests
- brain imaging
2 ways to treat epilepsy