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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (100)
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1

Define musculoskeletal disease

disorders of joints and bones that may or may not also affect other bodily systems

2

name the two categories of joint disease

1. osteoarthritis
2. connective tissue diseases

3

name 3 types of connective tissue diseases

- rheumatoid arthritis
- systemic sclerosis
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

4

name 4 types of bone disease

- hyperparathyroidism
- paget's disease
- osteomalacia
- osteoporosis

5

general symptoms for joint disease is.. 6 things

inflammation
- hot
- red
- swollen
- painful
destruction
- deformity
- instability

6

list the 4 joints that are most likely to be affected by osteoarthritis

- hands
- hips
- knees
- ankles

7

3 things that predispose a person to osteoarthritis

- genetics
- obesity
- previously damaged joints

8

which part of the joint does osteoarthritis affect (or all of it)?

whole joint affected

9

what are 3 pathophysiological changes that occur in osteoarthritis?

- cartilage worn away
- cartilage fragments in synovial fluid
- bone spurs (overgrowth)

10

what is the full definition of osteoarthritis

progressive destruction of the cartilage due to inflammation which can go on to affect the whole joint

11

who is most at risk of having osteoarthritis?

women over 60

12

what % of patients have no symptoms of osteoarthritis?

50% (25% of the 50% of over 60s who have radiographic evidence)

13

what are 4 symptoms of osteoarthritis

- pain that is worsened by movement and eased by rest
- immobility which is worse in the morning
- deformity
- swelling

14

which nodes on the hands are closer to where a ring would sit?

heberden's nodes

15

what are the nodes closest to your finger nails called?

bouchards nodes

16

what are 5 ways to manage osteoarthritis

- lose weight
- physiotherapy
- analgesia
- steroid injection (temporary relief)
- joint replacement

17

what type of disease is rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology

18

what does the immune system do to give rheumatiod arthritis?

makes antibodies against bodies own antibodies - commonly IgM

19

which part of the joint experiences the most inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

synovial inflammation leads to joint destruction

20

what 3 changes occur to a joint with rheumatoid arthritis?

- inflammed synovium
- generalised bone loss/erosion
- cartilage loss

21

what % of the population is affected by rheumatoid arthritis

1-3%

22

rheumatoid arthritis - how many times more common is it in female?

3x

23

when is the usual onset of rheumatoid arthritis?

30 - 50 years old

24

what parts of the body are usually initially affected by RA?

hands and feet

25

what areas are then affected later on by RA?

- cervical spine
- knees
- ankles
- elbows
- shoulders

26

what are 2 symptoms of established RA?

deformity (restriction)
sub-luxation

27

give the 5 signs of RA in the hands

1. ulnar deviation
2. rheumatoid nodule(s)
3. Z thumb
4. swan neck deformity
5. boutonniere deformity

28

what are 7 systemic issues with RA?

- kidney failure
- nervous system issues
- heart disease
- lung issues
- systemic inflammation
- eye issues
- sjogrens syndrome

29

what are the 2 nervous system complications with RA?

- peripheral neuropathy
- cervical cord compression (paralysis)

30

what lung complications can occur with RA?

pulmonary fibrosis