Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (100)
Define musculoskeletal disease
disorders of joints and bones that may or may not also affect other bodily systems
name the two categories of joint disease
2. connective tissue diseases
name 3 types of connective tissue diseases
- rheumatoid arthritis
- systemic sclerosis
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
name 4 types of bone disease
- paget's disease
general symptoms for joint disease is.. 6 things
list the 4 joints that are most likely to be affected by osteoarthritis
3 things that predispose a person to osteoarthritis
- previously damaged joints
which part of the joint does osteoarthritis affect (or all of it)?
whole joint affected
what are 3 pathophysiological changes that occur in osteoarthritis?
- cartilage worn away
- cartilage fragments in synovial fluid
- bone spurs (overgrowth)
what is the full definition of osteoarthritis
progressive destruction of the cartilage due to inflammation which can go on to affect the whole joint
who is most at risk of having osteoarthritis?
women over 60
what % of patients have no symptoms of osteoarthritis?
50% (25% of the 50% of over 60s who have radiographic evidence)
what are 4 symptoms of osteoarthritis
- pain that is worsened by movement and eased by rest
- immobility which is worse in the morning
which nodes on the hands are closer to where a ring would sit?
what are the nodes closest to your finger nails called?
what are 5 ways to manage osteoarthritis
- lose weight
- steroid injection (temporary relief)
- joint replacement
what type of disease is rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology
what does the immune system do to give rheumatiod arthritis?
makes antibodies against bodies own antibodies - commonly IgM
which part of the joint experiences the most inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?
synovial inflammation leads to joint destruction
what 3 changes occur to a joint with rheumatoid arthritis?
- inflammed synovium
- generalised bone loss/erosion
- cartilage loss
what % of the population is affected by rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis - how many times more common is it in female?
when is the usual onset of rheumatoid arthritis?
30 - 50 years old
what parts of the body are usually initially affected by RA?
hands and feet
what areas are then affected later on by RA?
- cervical spine
what are 2 symptoms of established RA?
give the 5 signs of RA in the hands
1. ulnar deviation
2. rheumatoid nodule(s)
3. Z thumb
4. swan neck deformity
5. boutonniere deformity
what are 7 systemic issues with RA?
- kidney failure
- nervous system issues
- heart disease
- lung issues
- systemic inflammation
- eye issues
- sjogrens syndrome
what are the 2 nervous system complications with RA?
- peripheral neuropathy
- cervical cord compression (paralysis)