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Flashcards in Neurology 2 Deck (26)
1

What is hemiplegia?

Paralysis of 1 side

2

Which part of the brain, if damaged, can cause hemiplegia?

Motor cortex

3

Injury to the motor cortex can also cause which 5 focal neurology

Dysphasia
Dysarthria
Increased muscle tone
Increased weakness (face and limbs)
Increased reflexes

4

What is dysarthria?

Difficulty speaking

5

What is dysphasia?

Deficiency in the generation of speech

6

What are the 3 contralateral issues that can occur when you damage the sensory cortex?

1 loss of sensation
2 neglect
3 hyperaesthesia (excessive sensation = pain syndrome)

7

What issues can occur due to damage to the higher level eg frontal lobe?

Sequencing problem (dyspraxia)

8

What are the 3 types of vision loss?

1 monocular vision
2 hemianopia
3 visual neglect

9

What is hemianopia?

Blindness over half of the vision field

10

Damage to the cerebellum causes...3 things

Loss of co-ordination
Ataxia (intention tremor & cerebellar gait)
Dysarthria - speech problems

11

What does the basal ganglia control? Damage results on what?

Controls movement
Damage:
- increased muscle tone
- slowness of action
- tremor

12

What is the word used to describe slowness of action?

Bradykinesia

13

Define a stroke

Disorder of the vascular supply of the brain

14

What are 90% of strokes? 10% are..

Infarction ( atherosclerosis and cardiac emboli )
haemorrage

15

What is focal neurology?

The effect of brain injury

16

what are the 2 types of infarction type strokes?

- transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
- completed stroke

17

what is a TIA?

a small stroke where symptoms resolve within 24hrs that requires urgent medical attention to reduce risk of permanent stroke

18

what is a completed stroke?

persisiting neurological deficit

19

are haemorragic strokes usually more or less severe than infarction type strokes?

more severe

20

what is the main risk factors for haemorragic stroke?

hypertension

21

what is the epidemiology of strokes?

- incidence increases with age
- 1% each year aged 75

22

what are the clinical features of a stroke dependant upon?

the site of the infarction

23

what are the clinical features of a stroke?

- hemiplegia
- hemianopia
- dysarthria
- dysphagia
- dysphasia
- cognitive impairment
- dyspraxia
- impaired consciousness
- confusion
- seizure

24

what is hemiplegia?

1 side paralysis

25

what is hemianopia?

half blindness

26

what is dysarthria?

difficult articulation