Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (42)
what is the main function of the respiratory system?
what are the 3 main disturbances that can occur in the respiratory system?
- reduced TRANSFER of oxygen (at alveoli)
- reduced VENTILATION of lungs
- reduced PERFUSION of lungs
what is the medical term for breathlessness
what causes a wheeze?
narrowing of the airways
the reversible small airway obstruction
what is the incidence of asthma
-increasingly common and can occur at all ages
- 2-5% adults and 5-10% children
what is the pathophysiology of asthma?
inflammatory / allergic condition
the 3 main symptoms of asthma are...
how to assess asthma?
a peak flow test
give 5 asthma precipitants
what are signs of chronic asthma?
- restriction of activities
- frequent use of inhalers (especially relievers)
4 ways to manage asthma
1. inhaled beta-2-agonist
2. inhaled steroids
3. combination inhalers
4. other medications
what are signs of life threatening asthma?
- poor respiratory effort
what category are most likely to have unstable asthma?
teenagers with poor compliance
3 oral side effects of inhalers?
1 dry mouth
2 oral candidiasis
3 altered taste
give an example of long acting and short acting beta2- agonist?
long acting = salmeterol
short acting = salbutamol
give an example of an inhaled steroid?
what is contained within the combined inhaler called seretide?
salmeterol and fluticasone
airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible
what is the main cause of COPD?
smoking (can also be occupational exposure)
what are the 2 pathophysiological consequences to damage to the lung parenchyma?
what is emphsema?
what are the 5 symptoms of COPD?
3. chronic cough
4. sputum production
5. frequent infections
what does FEV1 mean?
forced expiratory volume in 1 second
what does FVC mean?
forced vital capacity
4 ways to manage COPD
- stop smoking
- oral ad inhaled therapies
- exercise programs
- home oxygen (if very severe)
what is pneumonia?
infection of lung tissue
what are the acute symptoms of pneumonia?
- sputum production (green)
- fever (definitely!)
- pleuritic chest pain
2 investigations that can give a diagnosis of pneumonia?
- chest x-ray
- sputum examination
what is pneumothorax?
the leak of air into the pleural space (ie a burst lung)
2 categories of people who are at high risk of pneumothorax?
1. tall young people who smoke
2. those with chronic lung disease
what would a chest xray look like with pneumothorax?
loss of lung markings - darkness
define sleep apnoea?
the collapse of the upper airways during sleep
what are the 5 symptoms of sleep apnoea?
- daytime sleeping
- microsleeps (30s) sleeping when theyre unaware
what are 5 risk factors for sleep apnoea?
1. large neck
2. unusual structure in neck
3. smoking/alcohol before bed
4. being overweight
5. sedative medication
3 ways to manage sleep apnoea
- lifestyle changes
- CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure device)
- MAD (mandibular advancement device)
define interstitial lung disease
inflammation of the lung tisssue that can progress to fibrosis.
what are the consequences of lung fibrosis?
irreversible damage and loss of elasticity but same circumference
what type of lung defect is interstitial lung disease and how does it compare to COPD?
it is a restrictive lung defect compared to COPD that is an obstructive defect
4 causes of interstitial lung disease
- cause totally unknown
- allergens (birds, drugs, occupational)
- direct damage (asbestos, coal)
- auto-immune disease (ie rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis)
2 symptoms of interstitial lung disease are..