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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (42)
1

what is the main function of the respiratory system?

gas exchange

2

what are the 3 main disturbances that can occur in the respiratory system?

- reduced TRANSFER of oxygen (at alveoli)
- reduced VENTILATION of lungs
- reduced PERFUSION of lungs

3

what is the medical term for breathlessness

dysponea

4

what causes a wheeze?

narrowing of the airways

5

define asthma

the reversible small airway obstruction

6

what is the incidence of asthma

-increasingly common and can occur at all ages
- 2-5% adults and 5-10% children

7

what is the pathophysiology of asthma?

inflammatory / allergic condition

8

the 3 main symptoms of asthma are...

1. cough
2. wheeze
3. breathlessness

9

how to assess asthma?

a peak flow test

10

give 5 asthma precipitants

1. allergen
2. irritants
3. exertion
4. emotion
5. NSAIDs

11

what are signs of chronic asthma?

- restriction of activities
- frequent use of inhalers (especially relievers)

12

4 ways to manage asthma

1. inhaled beta-2-agonist
2. inhaled steroids
3. combination inhalers
4. other medications

13

what are signs of life threatening asthma?

-silent chest
- arrhythmia
- hypotension
- poor respiratory effort

14

what category are most likely to have unstable asthma?

teenagers with poor compliance

15

3 oral side effects of inhalers?

1 dry mouth
2 oral candidiasis
3 altered taste

16

give an example of long acting and short acting beta2- agonist?

long acting = salmeterol
short acting = salbutamol

17

give an example of an inhaled steroid?

beclamethosone

18

what is contained within the combined inhaler called seretide?

salmeterol and fluticasone

19

define COPD

airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible

20

what is the main cause of COPD?

smoking (can also be occupational exposure)

21

what are the 2 pathophysiological consequences to damage to the lung parenchyma?

1. bronchitis
2. emphsema

22

what is emphsema?

alveolar destruction

23

what are the 5 symptoms of COPD?

1. breathlessness
2. wheeze
3. chronic cough
4. sputum production
5. frequent infections

24

what does FEV1 mean?

forced expiratory volume in 1 second

25

what does FVC mean?

forced vital capacity

26

4 ways to manage COPD

- stop smoking
- oral ad inhaled therapies
- exercise programs
- home oxygen (if very severe)

27

what is pneumonia?

infection of lung tissue

28

what are the acute symptoms of pneumonia?

- sputum production (green)
- cough
- breathlessness
- fever (definitely!)
- pleuritic chest pain

29

2 investigations that can give a diagnosis of pneumonia?

- chest x-ray
- sputum examination

30

what is pneumothorax?

the leak of air into the pleural space (ie a burst lung)

31

2 categories of people who are at high risk of pneumothorax?

1. tall young people who smoke
2. those with chronic lung disease

32

what would a chest xray look like with pneumothorax?

loss of lung markings - darkness

33

define sleep apnoea?

the collapse of the upper airways during sleep

34

what are the 5 symptoms of sleep apnoea?

- snoring
- daytime sleeping
- irritability
- headaches
- microsleeps (30s) sleeping when theyre unaware

35

what are 5 risk factors for sleep apnoea?

1. large neck
2. unusual structure in neck
3. smoking/alcohol before bed
4. being overweight
5. sedative medication

36

3 ways to manage sleep apnoea

- lifestyle changes
- CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure device)
- MAD (mandibular advancement device)

37

define interstitial lung disease

inflammation of the lung tisssue that can progress to fibrosis.

38

what are the consequences of lung fibrosis?

irreversible damage and loss of elasticity but same circumference

39

what type of lung defect is interstitial lung disease and how does it compare to COPD?

it is a restrictive lung defect compared to COPD that is an obstructive defect

40

4 causes of interstitial lung disease

- cause totally unknown
- allergens (birds, drugs, occupational)
- direct damage (asbestos, coal)
- auto-immune disease (ie rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis)

41

2 symptoms of interstitial lung disease are..

1. cough
2. breathlessness

42

2 ways to manage interstitial lung disease

- remove underlying cause
- suppress immune system (eg steroids)