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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (54)
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1

what are the 3 main functions of the blood?

1. transport
2. immune system
3. co-agulation

2

what are the 2 main composition of blood?

- plasma
- cells

3

what are the 3 types of cells?

- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
- Platelets

4

what are the 6 components of plasma?

- lipids
- nutrients
- hormones
- electrolytes
- water
- proteins

5

where are blood cells mainly produced?

the bone marrow

6

define anaemia

a low haemocrit (lack of haemoglobin)

7

what does MCV stand for and what is it?

mean cell volume and it is the SIZE of red blood cells

8

what is the condition where the blood cells are
-a = too big
-b = too small

a = Macrolytic
b = Microlytic

9

leukopenia is when..

you have to few white blood cells

10

what is the condition for too many white blood cells?

leukocytosis

11

what does WCC mean?

the total quantity of white blood cells

12

what can be done to test the different types of white blood cells?

differential count

13

thrombocythaemia is when..

you have too many platelets

14

what is the condition when you have too few platelets?

thrombcytopaenia

15

what are the two ways to test co-agulation?


1 - APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)
2 - PT (prothrombin time) / INR (international normalised ratio)

16

what are the two causes of anaemia?

- lack of haemoglobin
- lack of cells

17

what are the 3 consequences of anaemia?

- lack of raw materials
- production problems
- longevity problem

18

what are the raw materials that may lack in anaemia?

-Vit B12
- Iron
- Folate

19

what can a lack of erythropoetin cause?

renal failure

20

when may you get an issue in the production process of a red blood cell?

a failure in the bone marrow

21

what are some of the causes of failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells? 4 things

- chemotherapy
- radiotherapy
- haematological malignancy
- chronic inflammatory disease

22

where are the main areas for loss of blood from the circulation? 4 things

- bowel
- menstruation
- trauma (post operative)
- other organs (unusual)

23

define haemolysis

the destruction of cells in the circulation

24

what are the 2 main causes of haemolysis?

- auto immunity (red blood cells destroyed by anti bodies)
- abnormal red blood cells

25

which type of anaemia will result in microlytic cells?

iron deficiency anaemia

26

which type of anaemia will result in macrolytic cells?

B12/folate deficiency = autoimmune

27

give 4 symptoms of anaemia

- tiredness
- dizzy
- breathless
- palpitations

28

give 3 clinical signs of anaemia

- pale
- rapid pulse
- may have oral features

29

what investigations are needed when someone is diagnosed with anaemia?

- blood tests to establish type
- investigation to detect cause

30

what are the 2 treatments of anaemia?

- supplements
- blood transfusion (if very severe)

31

what must be checked in all black african & Caribbean decent before undergoing GA?

their sickle cell status

32

are white blood cells common and serious?

they are rare and very serious

33

what is the most important white blood cell deficiency?

neutropenia

34

what is the cause of neutropenia?

bone marrow failure (chemo, radio, malignancy, chronic inflammatory diseases)

35

neutropenia can present to a dental professional how?

- candidal infection
- viral (ie herpes simplex)
- commensal bacteria
in mouth and throat

36

what are patients with neutropenia at high risk of?

serious disseminated (spreads widely through the body) infections

37

name the two main types of haematological malignancy.

1. leukaemia
2. lymphoma

38

what happens at a microscopic level in a patient with leukaemia?

proliferation of primitive blood cells

39

the two types of leukaemia are?

acute and chronic

40

the most common malignancy in children is..?

acute leukaemia

41

how does acute leukaemia present? 3 things

1. marrow failure
2. lymohadenopathy
3. soft tissue infiltration

42

name the 3 consequences of bone marrow failure?

- anaemia
- infection
- bleeding

43

what is the average survival for acute leukaemia?

- 50% survival
- 5 years
- best in children

44

how does chronic leukaemia present?

- anaemia
- lymphadenopathy
- in adults

45

what are the two types of lymphoma?

hodgkins & non-hodgkins

46

who is normally affected by hodgkins lymphoma?

young adults

47

how does hodgkins lymphoma present itself? 7 things

- lymphadenopathy (cervical)
- anaemia
- fever
- weight loss
- night sweats
- itch

48

what is the % prognosis survival for hodgkins lymphoma?

80%

49

non-hodgkins lymphoma is more likely to affect...

older adults

50

how does non-hodgkins lymphoma present itself? 4 things

- lymphadenopathy
- fever
- weight loss
- anorexia

51

what is the average survival rate for non-hodgkins lymphoma?

50%

52

how may a patient who has haematological malignancy present to dental professionals? 4

- atypical infections
- bleeding
- lymphadenopathy
- gum infiltrations

53

you may have platelet problems due to which 4 things?

1. deficiency of raw materials - VitB12 & Folate
2. production problems (bone marrow failure)
3. destruction
4. aggregation

54

two ways that platelets can be destroyed are..?

- immune mediate
- postural hypertension (spleen sequestration)