Flashcards in Haematology Deck (54)
what are the 3 main functions of the blood?
2. immune system
what are the 2 main composition of blood?
what are the 3 types of cells?
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
what are the 6 components of plasma?
where are blood cells mainly produced?
the bone marrow
a low haemocrit (lack of haemoglobin)
what does MCV stand for and what is it?
mean cell volume and it is the SIZE of red blood cells
what is the condition where the blood cells are
-a = too big
-b = too small
a = Macrolytic
b = Microlytic
leukopenia is when..
you have to few white blood cells
what is the condition for too many white blood cells?
what does WCC mean?
the total quantity of white blood cells
what can be done to test the different types of white blood cells?
thrombocythaemia is when..
you have too many platelets
what is the condition when you have too few platelets?
what are the two ways to test co-agulation?
1 - APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)
2 - PT (prothrombin time) / INR (international normalised ratio)
what are the two causes of anaemia?
- lack of haemoglobin
- lack of cells
what are the 3 consequences of anaemia?
- lack of raw materials
- production problems
- longevity problem
what are the raw materials that may lack in anaemia?
what can a lack of erythropoetin cause?
when may you get an issue in the production process of a red blood cell?
a failure in the bone marrow
what are some of the causes of failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells? 4 things
- haematological malignancy
- chronic inflammatory disease
where are the main areas for loss of blood from the circulation? 4 things
- trauma (post operative)
- other organs (unusual)
the destruction of cells in the circulation
what are the 2 main causes of haemolysis?
- auto immunity (red blood cells destroyed by anti bodies)
- abnormal red blood cells
which type of anaemia will result in microlytic cells?
iron deficiency anaemia
which type of anaemia will result in macrolytic cells?
B12/folate deficiency = autoimmune
give 4 symptoms of anaemia
give 3 clinical signs of anaemia
- rapid pulse
- may have oral features
what investigations are needed when someone is diagnosed with anaemia?
- blood tests to establish type
- investigation to detect cause
what are the 2 treatments of anaemia?
- blood transfusion (if very severe)
what must be checked in all black african & Caribbean decent before undergoing GA?
their sickle cell status
are white blood cells common and serious?
they are rare and very serious
what is the most important white blood cell deficiency?
what is the cause of neutropenia?
bone marrow failure (chemo, radio, malignancy, chronic inflammatory diseases)
neutropenia can present to a dental professional how?
- candidal infection
- viral (ie herpes simplex)
- commensal bacteria
in mouth and throat
what are patients with neutropenia at high risk of?
serious disseminated (spreads widely through the body) infections
name the two main types of haematological malignancy.
what happens at a microscopic level in a patient with leukaemia?
proliferation of primitive blood cells
the two types of leukaemia are?
acute and chronic
the most common malignancy in children is..?
how does acute leukaemia present? 3 things
1. marrow failure
3. soft tissue infiltration
name the 3 consequences of bone marrow failure?
what is the average survival for acute leukaemia?
- 50% survival
- 5 years
- best in children
how does chronic leukaemia present?
- in adults
what are the two types of lymphoma?
hodgkins & non-hodgkins
who is normally affected by hodgkins lymphoma?
how does hodgkins lymphoma present itself? 7 things
- lymphadenopathy (cervical)
- weight loss
- night sweats
what is the % prognosis survival for hodgkins lymphoma?
non-hodgkins lymphoma is more likely to affect...
how does non-hodgkins lymphoma present itself? 4 things
- weight loss
what is the average survival rate for non-hodgkins lymphoma?
how may a patient who has haematological malignancy present to dental professionals? 4
- atypical infections
- gum infiltrations
you may have platelet problems due to which 4 things?
1. deficiency of raw materials - VitB12 & Folate
2. production problems (bone marrow failure)