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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (15):
1

What is the cause of type 1 diabetes

Autoimmune distruction of B cells
Can be triggered by a virus like Kawasaki
HLA subtypes

2

What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes

Polyuria
Polydispia
Hunger
Weight loss

3

What is the cause of type 2 diabetes

Obesity related
Associated with life style
Muscles become insulin resistant

4

What causes gestational diabetes

Maternal age
History of type 2
African or North American more predisposed
Previous gestational diabetes
Previous baby over 4kg
Smoking when pregnant

5

What are the dangers for the mother of gestational diabetes

Risk of developing type 2 diabetes later
High bp
Pre-eclampsia
Obstructive labour

6

What are the dangers to the child of gestational diabetes

Risk of developing type 2 diabetes later
Risk of obesity
Marosomia (big baby)
Neonatal low blood sugar
Neonatal jaundice
Respiratory distress

7

What are the causes of secondary diabetes

Chronic pancreatitis
Cystic fibrosis
Pancreatic surgery
Haemochromatosis
Endocrine disease
Drug therapy

8

How to diagnose diabetes

Fasting plasma glucose above 7mmol
Plsna glucose above 11.1mmol two hours
Plasma glucose randomly above 11.1mmol

9

The symptoms of ketoacidosis

Vomiting
Abdominal pain
Loss consciousness
Dehydrated
Rapid break down of fats and proteins releasing ketones to the blood stream

10

What is hyperosmolar nonketonic state

No ketones but high blood sugar
Occurs in those with type 2 diabetes

11

Symptoms of hypoglycaemia

Clammy
Confused
Unconscious
Occurs due to insulin over dose

12

What is diabetic retinopathy

Proliferation of blood vessels in the retina causing haemorrhage

13

Clinical signs of diabetic neuropathy

Peripheral numbness
Occasional neuropathic pain
Muscle weakness
Autonomic neuropathy

14

Clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy

Vomiting
Diarrhoea
Constipation
Impotence
Incontinance
Anorgasmia
Postural hypotension

15

Infections caused by diabetic neuropathy

Osteomyelitis- bone
Septicaemia - blood
Post op
Rectal access
Pyleophitis