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Flashcards in Cells Deck (12):

What is a cell stressor

Noxious stimuli


What is hypertrophy

Cell increases in size causing an organ to increase in size

E.g physiological muscles, pathological heart disease


What is hyperplasia

When an increase in the number of cells causes an increase in organ size

E.g physiological menstrual cycle, pathological endometrial hyperplasia


What is atrophy

Loss of substance causing a cell to shrink.

E.g due to decreased work load, age, low blood supply.


What is metaplasia

When a cell is replaced by another type.
Usually reversible and usually changes due to noxious stimuli.
E.g Barrett's oesophagus


8 causes of cell death

1. Hypoxia
2. Ischaemia
3. Chemical exposure
4. Infection
5. Radiation
6. Lack of nutrients
7. Immunological reaction
8. Ageing


What is apoptosis

Natural cell death
Cells activate the enzyme which degrades the cells own DNA and proteins
Bits break off and are removed by phagocytes


Physiological examples of apoptosis

. Embryogenesis ( in the womb)


Examples of pathological apoptosis

. DNA damage
. Accumulation of Mis folded proteins
. Infections
. Duct obstructions
.cell death induced by T cells


What is necrosis

A premature cell death
1) coagulative (lot rbc)
2) caseous (tb, cavity)
3) liquefactive (brain, stroke part dies)
4) fat necrosis ( fat die due to trauma)


How can neoplasia cause cancer

Mild DNA damage or mutation means th cell can't repair or divide which then causes cancer


Abnormalities in the cell examples

. Fat in the liver- alcohol
. Cholesterol in smooth muscles- atherosclerosis
. Protein in Alzheimer's