Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy II > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (65)
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31

Saliva

Moistens, dissolves food for taste, begins starch and fat digestion, cleanses teeth, inhibits bacteria, and binds food together into bolus

32

Amylase

Begins starch digestion

33

Lingual Lipase

Digests fat after it reaches the stomach

34

Lysozyme

Enzyme that kills bacteria

35

Immunoglobin A

Inhibits bacterial growth

36

Electrolytes

Na+, K+, Cl-, phosphate, and bicarbonate

37

Salivation

Salivary nuclei in the medulla oblongata and pons
Parasympathetic function

38

Mumps

Myxovirus that attacks the parotid gland

39

Pharynx

Funnel-shaped tube extending from internal nares to the esophagus (posteriorly) and the larynx (anteriorly)

40

Esophagus

Collapsed muscular tube

41

Histology of the Esophagus

Mucosa: stratified squamous
Submucosa: large mucous glands
Muscularis: upper 1/3 is skeletal, middle is mixed, lower 1/3 is smooth
Adventitia: connective tissue blending with surrounding connective tissue (no peritoneum)

42

Swallowing

Upper sphincter relaxes when larynx is lifted
Peristalsis pushes food down
Lower sphincter relaxes as food approaches

43

Swallowing: Oral Phase

Voluntary
Bolus formed in the mouth
Oropharynx-->Laryngopharynx

44

Pharyngeal Phase

Involuntary
Tongue and soft palate block food and drink
Esophagus widens

45

Esophageal Phase

Peristalsis
Brain swallowing center + myenteric plexus in esophageal wall
Muscle above bolus constricts

46

Anatomy of Stomach

Left side of stomach
Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus

47

Pylorospasm

Muscle fibers of sphincter fail to relax, trapping food in the stomach
Vomiting occurs to relieve pressure

48

Pyloric Stenosis

Narrowing of sphincter indicated by projectile vomiting
Must be corrected surgically

49

Stomach Mucous Cell

Secretes mucous
Cardiac, pyloric glands

50

Stomach Regenerative Cells

Base of gastric pits
Divide rapidly
New cells migrate upward

51

Stomach Parietal Cells

Secrete HCl, intrinsic factor, ghrelin
Found mostly in gastric glands

52

Stomach Chief Cells

Most numerous
Secrete gastric lipase, pepsinogen
Lower 1/2 of gastric glands

53

Stomach Enteroendocrine Cells

Found in the lower end of the gland
Secrete hormones and paracrine messengers
At least 8 different kinds

54

Stomach Muscularis

Longitudinal, Circular, and Inner Oblique

55

Stomach Mechanical Digestion

Gentle mixing waves
More vigorous waves from body to pyloric region
Intense waves near the pylorus

56

Stomach Chemical Digestion

Protein digestion begins as HCl denatures protein, transforms pepsinogen into pepsin
Fat digestion continues as gastric lipase splits triglycerides in milk fat

57

Regulation of Gastric Secretion and Motility

1. Cephalic phase
2. Gastric phase
3. Intestinal phase

58

Cephalic Phase

Gets the stomach ready
Cerebral cortex stimulates parasympathetic nervous system
Vagus nerve increases stomach muscle and glandular activity

59

Gastric Phase

"Stomach Working"
Nervous control keeps stomach active
Endocrine system influences stomach activity

60

GI Reflexes

Short Reflex: reflex arc where stimulus, integration, and effector are all located in the GI system
Long Reflex: reflex arc where integration occurs in the brain or spinal cord; vasovagal reflex