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Block 6 > Drugs of Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (67):
1

addiction

overwhelming compulsion
criminal activity to obtain
extreme dependence (psychological or physical)

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part of the brain involved in addiction

nucleus accumbens

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drugs of abuse

opioids
CNS depressants
psychostimulants
nicotine
hallucinogens
marijuana
phencyclidine
volatile intoxicants

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examples of opioids

heroin
methadone
morphine
codeine

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opioid MOA

mesolimbic DA system
inhibits GABA release which leads to increased activation of the ventral segmental area neurons and increased dopamine release

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effects of opioids

euphoria
sleepiness
anxiety release
analgesia
depression of cough reflex

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methadone

opioid against
slowly acting
less euphoria and withdrawal symptoms
used for maintenance therapy
can be tapered off slowly or on for life
only at clinics

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buprenorphine

opioid agoinst/antagoinst
maintenance treatment
less respiratory depression and withdrawal than methadone
available at pharmacies

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naltrexone

opioid antagonist
used for dependence, rapid detox, or maintenance

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most severe withdrawal symptoms

opioids

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opioid withdrawal symptoms

not life threatening
anxious
mydriasis
increased pulse
piloerection
secretion
muscle aches
NVD
dehydration

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examples of sedative-hypnotics (CNS depressants)

benzodiazepines
barbiturates

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alprazolam

benzodiazepine

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diazepam

benzo

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lorazepam

benzo

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flunitrazepam

benzo
roofies

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effects of sedative hypnotics

euphoria
stimulation

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treatment of benzo overdose

taper off slowly- can give a longer acting benzo
tremor- propranolol/clonidine
anxiety- buspirone

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benzo withdrawal symptoms

tremor
insomnia
anxiety
abdominal cramps
orthostatic hypotension
hyperreflexia
weakness
illusions and hallucinations
seizures
delirium

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examples of stimulants

cocaine
crack
amphetamines
methylphenidate
MDA
MDMA
caffeine
theophylline
nicotine

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MDMA

ecstasy

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crack vs cocaine

crack- smoke
cocaine- IV

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methylxanthines

caffeine
theophylline

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MOA cocaine

inhibits DA reuptake*
also inhibits NE and 5HT reuptake

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effects of cocaine

euphoria
rush
delusions
hallucination
increased HR/BP

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overdose of cocaine

tachycardia
HTN
brain hemorrhage
anxiety
paranoia
seizures
unpredictable behavior

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the runs

associated with cocaine
alternate cravings and drug taking which leads to crash

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the blues

associated with cocaine
fatigue
depression
hyperphagia

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treatment of cocaine dependence

can only treat symptoms
beta blockers for autonomic activity
nitroglycerine- angina
CCB- HTN
ice bath- fever
antidepressants- depression
haloperidol- psychosis
alprazolam- panic attacks

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cocaine withdrawal symptoms

depression
sleepiness
craving
bradycardia
not life threatening
decreases over weeks

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amphetamines MOA

release of endogenous amines- DA NE
inhibit transporter

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effects of amphetamines

euphoria
hallucinations
anorexia
fever

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amphetamine overdose

tachycardia
arrhythmia
NVD
delirium
psychosis
stroke
seizure
muscle rigidity
rhabdomyolysis

34

effects of nicotine

increase E and NE from adrenal gland
increases sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
increases ACTH from pituitary

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positive effects of nicotine

anxiolysis
cognitive enhancement
cerebrovasodilation
neuroprotection
analgesia
anti-psychotic

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negative effects of nicotine

GI distress
hypothermia
emesis
HTN
seizures
respiratory distress

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acute nicotine intoxification

respiratory arrest from blocking respiratory centers and NMJ for breathign

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chronic effects of nicotine

heart disease
lung disease/cancer
low birth weight
asthma in kids

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withdrawal symptoms of nicotine

nervousness
sleep disturbances

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methods of nicotine cessation

nicotine gum
patches
nasal spray
varenicline

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varenicline

partial nACh agoinst- blocks receptors to prevent withdrawal and prevents nicotine from binding

42

hallucinogen examples

LSD
mescaline
LSM
psilocybin

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acute effects of low dose hallucinogens

thought distortion
visual hallucinations
synthesis
dizziness
nausea
blurred vision
anxiety
tension
dilated pupils
increased HR, BP, temp, reflexes

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acute effects of high doses of hallucinogens

panic
paranoia

45

MOA of hallucinogens

5HT2a receptor*
mimics 5HT, DA, Ach

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active ingredient in marijuana

cannabinoid (THC)
dronabinol- synthetic THC

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acute effects of marijuana

rapid onset
euphoria
relaxation
altered passage of time
memory impairment

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high doses of marijuana effects

visual hallucinations
psychosis

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medical uses of marijuana

increase appetite
decrease nausea
decrease IOP
relieve chronic pain

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chronic effects of marijuana

short term memory issues
lung disease
decreased testosterone

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MOA of marijuana

inhibit adenylate cyclase
inhibit Ca channel
serotonin and Ach release
limbic system inhibition

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psychological dependence of marijuana

anxiety
irritable
insomnia
nausea

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phencyclidine

PCP

54

effects of low dose PCP

dreamy, altered perception
impaired judgement
partial amnesia

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effects moderate dose PCP

inebriation
dissociation
decreased pain sensitivity
ataxia
abnormal body sensations
mood swings

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high dose effects PCP

hallucinations
catatonia
delirium
amnesia
HTN crisis

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MOA of PCP

NMDA antagonist
block DA reuptake

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acute effects of inhalants

euphoria
numbness
tachycardia
hyptension

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long term effects of inhalants

loss of finger dexterity
severe neurological deficiencies

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effects of industrial solvents

euphoria
disorientation
time perception changes

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rank order of addiction risk

cocaine > opioids = nicotine > marijuana > PCP = hallucinogens

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naltrexone

opioid and alcohol dependency

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methadone

opioid dependency

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buprenorphine

opioid dependency

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clonidine

opioid withdrawal

66

disulfiram

alcohol dependency

67

acamprosate

alcohol craving