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Block 6 > Alcohols > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohols Deck (28):
1

where is ethanol absorbed

80% intestines
20% stomach
lungs
percutaneous in infants

2

how is ethanol metabolized

90% alcohol dehydrogenase
10% MEOS
then aldehyde dehydrogenase

3

rate limiting step of ethanol metabolism

alcohol dehydrogenase

4

CNS effects of ethanol

sedative-hypnotic
CNS depressant
affects reticular activation system
enhances endogenous opioid effects (reward)
judgement and attention impairment

5

Mellanby effect

greater effects when BAC is rising

6

peripheral effects of ethanol metabolism

vasodilation
low dose- appetite stimulant
high dose- appetite depressant
erosive gastritis
CYP induction
fatty liver degeneration
increased urine production

7

endocrine effects of ethanol metabolism

fluid-electrolyte imbalance
gynecomastia
testicular atrophy
interference with prolactin, GH, ADH

8

MOA of ethanol

enhances GABA activity at GABAa receptors
inhibits glutamate NMDA receptors
blocks Ca channels

9

signs and sx of acute ethanol intoxication

emesis
anesthesia
coma
hypotension
decreased cardiac contractility
respiratory depression

10

treatment of acute ethanol intoxication

gastric lavage
hemodialysis
supportive care- maintain respiration, fluid balance, perfusion; prevent aspiration

11

consequences of chronic alcoholism

liver cirrhosis
CV issues
nutritional problems
dehydration

12

stage 1 ethanol withdrawal

12-72h initial symptoms
highest risk for seizure

13

stage 2 ethanol withdrawal

24-48h post symptoms
peak effects

14

stage 3 ethanol withdrawal

delirium tremens (severe)
insomnia, tremors, REM rebound, anorexia
delirium, hallucinations, seizures
disorientation

15

drug treatments for ethanol

benzodiazepines
disulfiram
naltrexone
acamprosate

16

benzodiazepine MOA and use

ethanol withdrawal
inhibits nerve excitability
prevents progression to delirium tremens and reduces risk of seizure

17

disulfiram use and MOA

treats dependency
blocks acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase which increases acetylaldehyde in blood causing hangover symptoms
requires close monitoring

18

naltrexone use and MOA

dependency
opioid receptor antagonist
decreases cravings and risk of relapse

19

acamprosate use and MOA

dependency
GABA partial against
NMDA partial antagoinst

20

ADR for acamprosate

NVD
suicidal ideation
teratogenic

21

drug interactions for disulfiram

alcohol containing things
antifungals
amprenavir oral solution
metronidazole

22

facial features of fetal alcohol syndrome

prenatal growth retardation
microcephaly
poor coordination
abnormal facial features- flat philtrum, small eyes, small chin

23

immediate symptoms of methanol poisoning

drunk
drowsy

24

initial symptoms methanol poisoning

CNS depression
headache
dizziness
seizures
confusion
coma and death

25

late symptoms of methanol poisoning

visual disturbances
acidosis
respiratory failure

26

treatment of methanol poisoning- before toxic symptoms

reduce processing
fomepizole or ethanol

27

fomepizole

inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase

28

treatment of methanol poisoning after toxic symptoms

sodium bicarbonate
magnesium
folic acid (leucovorin)