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Flashcards in Endocrine Disorders Deck (24):
1

Know autocrine, paracrine, endocrine

ok

2

Site of origin of the thyroglossal duct?

Foramen Caecum...part of the tongue

3

What is an ectopic thyroid or lingual thyroid?

A mass in the foramen caecum of the tongue. Most common in women.

4

What can a lingual thyroid lead to

Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Dysphonia....trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, etc

5

The problem with taking out a lingual thyroid is that that may be the only functioning thyroid tissue they have.

They'll have hypothyroidism 70% of the time.

6

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Tends to cause repeat infection

7

Ectopic thyroid-substernal goiter may cause what

dyspnea, dysphagia, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid

8

Lateral Abberant Thyroid

Thyroid that rests in the lateral neck, sometimes in the lymph nodes.

9

In adults, what does lateral aberrant thyroid most commonly represent?

Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma

10

What are some other odd ball locations of ectopic thyroids?

Supra/infrahyoid thyroid

Struma Cordis- Ectopic thyroid tissue in the heart, usually rt. ventricle

11

KNOW THIS---- Struma ovarii

struma (term just applies to thyroid tissue) thyroid in the ovary. Not a true Ectopy (failure of thyroid to arrive in the right place)! Its a TERATOMA...a monodermal teratoma

May cause thyrotoxitosis, if a woman has thyrotoxicosis but a normal thyroid, may be due to strma ovariis

5% malignant

12

Symptoms/signs of Hyperthyroidism (Grave's Dz)

eopthalmos (bulging eyes), NON-PITTING edema, wt. loss, fatigue, tachycardia, muscular weakness

13

Graves disease pathophys

TSH receptor antibodies attach to the TSH receptor and cause unending thyroid stimulation.

14

What causes the exopthalmos and shin edema

The antibodies binding to other tissue sites and causing increased glycosaminoglycan production

15

Thyroid histo in graves disease looks like?

hyperplastic...look for scalopped colloid and hyperplastic epithelium

16

Commonest cause of hypothyroidism in North America is?

Hashimoto thyroiditis

17

What is the principle defect in Hash?

T cell defect

18

Histology of Hash?

Looks like intense lymphocytic infiltration with tissue destruction and fibrosis.

19

Early hyperthyroidism

Hash....late= hypothyroidism

Most women tend to present later in the hypothyroid phase.

20

DeQuervain thyroiditis (subacute granulomatous thyroiditis)

More common in women. Season peak in summer. Probably post-viral. Self-limited b/c it is not autoimmune.

Histo shows prominent Giant cell formation

21

Riedel Thyroditis

Fibrosis of the thyroid and other neck structures

22

Subacute Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

Also more frequent in women. NOT GRANULOMATOUS.
-more frequently post-partem

23

Miliary TB often ends up in the thyroid. Why?

It is highly vascularized (over a quarter of the circulation goes through the thyroid at some point.)

24

What is the definition of a goiter

a chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland, not due to neoplasm, occuring endemically in certain locations. Especially regions where the soil is low in iodine and sporadically elsewhere.