Endocrine and Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Endocrine and Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine and Metabolism Deck (33):
1

How much glucose is circulating in your blood right now

About one hours worth, if I had no backup, i'd die after that

2

Most efficient energy storage form?

Fat

3

What tissues can only use glucose for energy production

nerves (brain), rbcs, wbcs, renal tubules

4

Remember this about muscle

-It is about 50% of body mass in a fit person and uses about 30% of the oxygen we consume.
- It is a GREAT thing that muscle loves to use Fatty Acids and Ketone bodies for energy because this spares glucose from oxidation

5

Most immediate source of glucose INSIDE the body is?

Hepatic Glycogen

6

What organ is most responsive to insulin, receives the most insulin? And what does insulin do?

The liver receives the most insulin, is most responsive to Insulin.

Insulin inhibits hepatic glucose output and thus increases glucose uptake/

7

Objectives during and right after a meal?

1) TO FILL glycogen stores
2) TO not spill any glucose into the urine
3) To utilize ingested carbs and fat for energy and to package the excess carbs and fats.

8

What is the best and most common way of packing carbs and fats for use at a later time?

TAGS (FUCKING REMEMBER THIS!!) M1s know this better than you and that is bad. TRI- ACYL- GLYCEROLS

9

KNOW THE GLUCOSE FATTY ACID CYCLE

ok

10

What are the objectives between meals?

1) Keep Glucose at a relatively constant level (above 70 for brain and never function)
2) Decrease glucose utilization in organs where it is not a neccesity
3) Keep some glycogen reserves
4) Burn fats for energy (FA, KB)
Utilize sparable proteins

11

In regards to hormones that act on metabolism, what are the short acting hormones

Insulin
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Glucagon

12

What is the primary mechanism (basic) of the short acting hormones?

Increase or Decrease the enzyme or protein ACTIVITY
(Activity meaning the sensitivity of enzymes to hormonal or allosteric regulators)

13

What are the long acting hormones on metabolism?

Growth Hormone
Thyroid hormone
Gluccocorticoids
Sex steroids

14

What is the mechanism of the long acting hormones?

Increase or decrease the enzyme of protein AMOUNT

15

Growth hormone's effects on protein synthesis after a meal

increases it

16

T3's affect on protein synthesis after a meal?

increases it.

17

What actions does Cortisol have between meals?

Permissive actions.
Allows gluconeogenesis and lipolysis

18

GH in between meals

lowers glucose utilization and increases lipolysis

19

T3 in between means

inc in lipolysis

20

KNOW the graph regarding the synergistic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine

ok

21

What are the big lipolytic substances?

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Stimulate cAMP and activates Hormone sensitive lipase to convert TAG into Fatty Acids. THIS IS VERY BASIC>MUST KNOW

22

Major anti-lipolytic hormone

insulin...does the opposite to cAMP and hormone sensitive lipase.

23

What three hormones make Norepinephrine and Epinephrine more lipolytic?

Cortisol, growth hormone, T3

24

Glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis in many ways

In the liver:
- They have previously induced synthesis of key gluconeogenic and amino acid metabolizing enzymes
- They raise the hepatic responsiveness to glucagon

Peripherally they drive amino acid release from muscle and glycerol release in adipose which turns into glucose in the liver.

25

Know the figure on control of hypoglycemia

ok

26

SNS activity decreases while we're eating a meal and increases again afterwards

ok

27

What happens to growth hormone as you fast for a number of days

continues to rise

28

Glucagon as you fast?

rises up to about 150 and holds steady

29

Cortsiol during fasting

stays pretty constant

30

T3 during fasting

falls....decreases T4 to T3 conversion since T3 increases BMR

31

KNOW THE BIG FEEDING AND FASTING CHART

ok

32

Between meals, what does COrtisol do?

Has PERMISSIVE ACTIONS
- allows for gluconeogenesis and lipolysis
- mild reduction in glucose uptake and utilization.
Remmeber, Cortisol wants glucose to be in the blood

33

GH between meals

similar to cortisol