Flashcards in Obesity and Regulation of Appetitie Deck (31):
What does BMI equal?
BMI over 30
High risk waist circumference in men? Women
Men= over 40
Women over 35
What goes up about 5 minutes before hunger hits
What is the endocannabanoid system
Endogenous signaling system. Consists of two types of receptors CB1 and CB2. Generally silent but becomes active in order to reduce pain and anxiety, modulate body temp, inhibit motor behavior, extinguish aversive memories, induce appetite
25 or lower
35 and up= morbidly obese
What are the two components to determining obesity
BMI and waist cuircumference. Visceral fat in the abdomen is very dangerous.
Fat is stored as
Triglycerides. KNOW THIS!!! STORED FAT IS TRIGLYCERIDES. Storing fat is not a terrible thing. When we store fat, we are bringing down FFA from the plasma.
Visceral fat puts out more toxic products than other fat stores. Toxic products like
cytokines, c-reactive protein, TNF-alpha
What is the only good thing that comes out of fat cells
Adiponectin....and less of it comes out the more overwt you get
What are the three components that make up energy expenditure
Physical activity, thermic effect of food, Basal metabolic rate.
What is the most important of these three
Basal Metaboloic Rate
Non-excercise activity thermogenesis. Can be calculated by figuring out thermal energy of food and the BMR and subtracting NEAT from it
The other option is to estimate activities
What part of the hypothalamus expresses receptors for the hormones and neuropeptides that regulate feeding?
What is the major site of TRH and CRH synthesis in the hypothalamus?
The para ventricular nucleus, obviously would want to receive signals from teh ARC in order to better judge when TRH and CRH would need to be released
Neropeptide Y, Aghouti related Proteins (AgRP), and hypocretin/oxerins stimulate what?
In rats, NPY stimulated food uptake for a short period, AgRP for longer periods
The Endocannabanoid system
Generally silent but becomes active to decrease pain and anxiety, abolish bad memories, regulate body temperature, hormone release and smooth muscle tone, inhibit motor activity, induce appetite
Which ECS receptors are involved in appetite
Overactive ECS leads to what three things
1) increased appetite
2) increased motivation to eat
3) increased fat storage.
Its a feed forward system. The more you eat the more active it becomes
The hypothalamic anorexigenic agents include the melanocortins, cocaine-and-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), and serotonin.
Leptin seems to promote not eating
Congenital leptin deficiency leads to
Severe childhood obesity
Leptin deficiency occurs when what is deleted
guanine in codon 133
MC4 receptor dediciency also leads to obesity
KNOW THE CHART YOU MADE
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2D
These comormidities increase as BMI increases. BMI over 27 is bad news.
. Virtually all of the peripheral signals (e.g., insulin, PYY, leptin, CCK) are triggered by food ingestion and attenuated by fasting or starvation, indicating a response system that is tailored at satiety and meal termination
important conclusion. Most hormonal actions are post prandial.