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Flashcards in Hormones table Deck (75):
1

What does the Hypothalamus secrete?

- Releasing hormones: TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH,
- Inhibiting hormones: Somatostatin, PIH (Prolactin inhibitory hormone...also called dopamine.

2

What is the chemical nature of all things released by the hypothalamus?

All peptides except for PIH (amine)

3

Major stimuli for secretion

blank

4

What is released by the posterior pituitary gland?

Oxytocin and Vasopressin

5

Function of oxytocin

Let down breast milk by increasing the contractility of the myoepithelial cells, Uterine smooth muscle contraction

6

Function of vasopressin

Decrease water excretion, (aquaporins)
Increase contractility of smooth muscle which increases blood pressure

7

Major stimuli for vasopressin release?

Low plasma volume or high plasma osmlarity

8

What are the major hormones released by the Anterior Pituitary gland

Growth Hormone
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Leutenizing hormone
Prolactin
Follicle Stimulating hormone

9

Growth hormone is responsible for what?

- Growth, organic metabolism; secretion of somatomedin by liver and cartilage

10

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone does what?

Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Increases size of the thyroid gland.

11

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone does what?

Adrenal cortex (mainly increases in cortisol. Some increase in androgens and aldosterone)

12

Prolactin does

Increases milk synthesis in the breasts, also stimulates breast development and inhibits ovulation

13

Leutenizing hormone does what

Stimulates testosterone synthesis on Leydig cells of the testes.
Stimulates ovulation, formation of the corpus luteum, estrogen and progesterone synthesis in ovaries

14

Follicle stimulating Hormone does qhat

Sperm maturation in the testis, follicular development and estrogen in the ovaries.

15

Which cell types in the anterior pituitary are classified as basophils

Everything except GH and PRL

16

GH and PRL are

Acidophils

17

What hormones are released by the adrenal cortex?

Cortisol
Adrenal Androgens (DHEA and adrostenedione)
Aldosterone

18

All of the hormones released by the adrenal cortex are of what chemical nature?

Steroids

19

Cortisol does what?

Stimulates gluconeogenesis; inhibits inflammatory response, suppresses immune response, enhances vascular response to catecholamines

20

Aldosterone does what

increases Na reabsorption in the kidneys, increases K secretion, inc H secretion

21

Adrenal androgens do what?

stimulate spermatogenesis and male secondary sex characteristics.

22

Just gonna do some actions for a while

ok

23

What hormones does the Endocrine Pancreas secrete?

Insulin
Glucagon

24

What is the main function of insulin?
Glucagon?

insulin decreases blood glucose
glucagon increases blood glucose

25

What hormones are secreted by the placenta?

- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
- Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or human chorionic sommatotropin
- Estriol
- Progesterone

26

What does HCG do?

Stimulates Estrogen and Progesteronesynthesis in the corpus luteum of early pregnancy

27

What does HPL do?

Growth like and Prolactin like actions during pregnancy

28

What does Estradiol do?

stimulates growth and development of female repro system, follicular phase of menstrual cycle, development of breasts, prolactin; maintians pregnancy

29

What does Prgesterone do?

Stimulates the Luteal phase of the Menstrual cycle

30

What hormones are produced by the ovaries?

Estradiol and Progesterone

31

What hormones are produced by the Testis

Testosterone

32

Action of testosterone

stimulates secondary sex characteristics in the make, stimulates spermatogenesis

33

Adrenal cortex hormones?

Aldosterone
Cortisol
DHEA
androstenedione

34

ALdosterone does what?

increases renal Na absorption, K secretion, H secretion

35

Cortisol does what

stimulates gluconeogenesis, inhibits inflammation,
suppresses immune response, enhances vascular response to catecholamines

36

Tits getting bigger (branching of mammary ducts) is accomplished by what three hormones?

Prolactin, Estrogen, Progesterone

Add some PEP to her step.

37

During pregnancy, what three hormones contribute to enlargement of the mammary alveoli

Prolactin, Estrogen, Progesterone again

38

Major action of prolactin?

Inducing transcroption of the genes for milk production

39

Why do breasts not secrete milk during pregnancy?
(Milk production only occurs after the birth of the child)

Because Estrogen and Progesterone levels are very high and they down-regulate the number of Prolactin receptors. At birth though, Estrogen and Progesterone levels fall rapidly and Prolactin is free to bind so milk production begins

40

How does Prolactin prevent ovulation

inhibits synthesis and release of GnRH. This means that fertility is greatly reduced during breast feeding. Also means that males with a prolactinoma (the most common pituitary adenoma, will have infertility.

41

Prolactin secretion is inhibited by

Dopamine

42

What does T3 do to GH levels?

Increases it

43

What 2 hormones are needed for spermatogenesis?

Testosterone and FSH....
Really requires 3 because you have to have LH for testosterone

44

Inhibin does what and is made where

reduces FSH, sertoli cells

45

Testosterone feeds back and inhibits LH

truth

46

Testosterone also inhibits GnRH

truth

47

Estrogen is a type of estradiol

ok

48

Low Estrogen does what to FSH and LH

Inhibits it

49

High E

High LH and FSH. Leads to mid-cycle LH surge that causes ovulation

50

Very high E

inhibitory, used to be used as birth control

51

Very Low E + progesterone

Now used in BC

52

Does estrogen have an effect on female body configureation

yes....widening of hips, fat content and distribution

53

Estrogen's effects on the oviducts:
Uterus:
Cervical mucous

Oviducts: Grwoth of muscle and epithelium, motility, ciliary beating
Uterus: growth of myometrium, increased contractility, growth of endometrium, development of spiral arteries and blood supply

54

Progesterone's effect on uterine muscle

antagonizes estrogen...decreases contractions partly by downregulating the number of estrogen receptors

55

Lets talk about the actions of Cortisol

ok

56

Overall, the metabolic effects of cortisol can be described with two words, they are

Catabolic and diabetogenic....Increases glucose synthesis
- Increases protein catabolism and decreases new muscle synthesis in order to provide new amino acids to the liver.
- lipolysis which provides glycerol to the liver for gluconeogenesis
- decreases glucose utilization bu tissues
- decreases insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue.

SO, in keeping with the adrenal as a stress gland, cortisol makes sense because it keeps blood glucose high during fasting.

57

Hypercortisolism (Cushing's) leads to what effect onb blood sugar

hyperglycemia

58

Low Cortisol (addison's dz) leads to what effect?

hypoglycemia

59

Cortisol and inflammation

Anti-inflammatory:
- No precursors to prastaglandins or leukotrienes
- No IL-2 so no T cell prolif
- Inhibits histamine and serotonin

60

Immune response and Cortisol

SUppressed

61

Cortisol and blood pressure

Necessary for normal blood pressure. Upregulates alpha 1 receptors in arterioles. This makes it required for vasoconstriction

62

Hypocortisolism and blood pressure

hypotensive

63

Hypercortisolism and bp

hypertensive (cushings(

64

Bone formation and Cortisol?

inhibited....no type 1 collagen

65

Sleep

Increases awake time

66

What affect does thyroid have on GH

Increases GH synthesis

67

PTH encourages the kidneys to do what

Resob calcium and expell phosphate

68

PTH encourages bones to do what

mobilize calcium....remember our biggest storage area of calcium is the bone

69

Excessive intake of Vitamin D and ionized calcium

VIT D intoxication can lead to low calcium levels

70

Structure of ACTH

small single chain peptide hormone with no subunits

71

The only amine hormones are

dopamine, the two thyroids, and catecholamines

72

THYROID GOES UP DURING PREGNANCY WHY?

Increased thyroid binding lgobulins

73

Peptides are broken down by the GI tract and never reach the circulation

Amines and Steroids are succewsfully absorbed

74

What the fuck does Inhibin do in males?

STOPS FSH SECRETION from teh sertoli cells of the testis which decreases spermatogenesis. Fsh...Fucking...Sperm.

75

Growth, motility, and SECRTIONS of oviduct, uterus , and vagina

EStrogen