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Flashcards in Esophageal Disease Deck (37):
1

What is dysphagia

trouble Swallowing

2

What are differential causes of Dyshpagia

achalasia, Diffuse Esophageal Spasm, Scleroderma, Carcinoma, Peptic stricture, Lower esophageal ring, Zenker diverticulum (Halitosis), Muscular dystrophy, Myasthenia gravis, Stroke

3

What is odynophagia

Painful Swallowing

4

What are the different causes of Odynopgaia

iron, Vitamin C, Tetracycline, Bisphosphonates, Radiation, CMV, Herpes, Candida, Caustic damage, Eosinophilic esophagitis, quinidine

5

What is Achalasia

failure of LES (lower esophageal sphincter) and smooth muscle fiber to relax.

6

What are the causes of Achalasia

It is due to the loss of auerback plexus ( provides motor innervation to both laters of the muscular layer).

7

How do you diagnose Achalasia

to diagnose, you can do the Barium Swallow ( patient swallow a barium solution and you observe the flow of the fluid through the esophagus), Manometry (measures the contractions of the esophagus)

8

What is Diffuse Esophageal Spasm

Normal movement but lack of nitric oxide (needed to relax)

9

How do you diagnose Diffuse Esophageal Spasm

Dx through Barium tortuous esophagus and through manometry,high intensity.

10

What si Scleroderma

Skin fibrosis- peristalsis and loss of LES tone

11

What are the characteristics of Scleroderma

it is characterized by the harding of the skin due to lymphocytes. it can affect internal organs.

12

What causes Scleroderma

due to Vasculitis ( inflammation of blood vessels)

13

What does CREST stand for

calcinosus, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyl and telangiectasia)

14

What are rings and webs and what is associated with it?

Webs are (Upper thin membranes located in the amide or upper esophagus). Plummer Vinson Syndrome

15

What is Plummer Vinson Syndrome

Plummer Vinson( rare disease that is characterized by difficulty swallow, iron deficiency, glossitis, cheilosis and webs. - risk of hypopharangeal cancer. initial Barium.

16

What are the cancers of the esophageal

Squamous ( upper 1/3) due to smoking and alcohol and Adenocarcinoma ( lower 1/3) GERD Barrett. the rate of both is 50/50 now with the increase in GERD.

17

How are the cancers diagnose

Thought Barium and most accurate is theEndoscopy

18

What is Zenker's Diverticulum

out- pocketing of post pharyngeal muscle. Bad breath and food regurgitation

19

How do you diagnose the Zenker's Diverticulum

Barium

20

What is a characteristic of Achalasia

Bird's peak

21

What is Mallor Weiss Syndrome

forceful vomiting that show GI bleeding due to the repetition. there is a tear of the mucosa

22

How do you diagnose Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Through endoscopy

23

What is the treatment for Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Self resolve, epinephrine injection and electrocautery. is see in food poising, alcoholism and eating disorders.

24

What is Boerhaave's Syndrome q

rupture of the esophagus due to excessive retching. full thickness tear.

25

How do you diagnose Boerhaave syndrome

crepitus on chest palpation can use water or fat soluble barium but water is better due to fat can cause more damage.

26

What is the treatment for Boerhaave's

Need Emergent surgery and the complication are medianstinitis and sepsis

27

What is GERD

inappropriate relaxation of LES. IT is a chroicn of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach and into the esophagus. Gastric acid back flow, acid hypersecretion.

28

What is one of the major causes of GERD

Hiatal Hernia

29

What is the presentation of GERD

Heartburn and regurgitation, atypical chest pain, bitter or acid test in mouth. water brash, sensation of lump in throat, frequent belching.

30

What are the manifestations of GERD

coughing (chronic), laryngitis, Asthma, Dental erosion, Chronic sinusitis.

31

What are the RED FLAGS of GERD and what test should your run

Anemia, Blood in stool, Dysphagia, weight loss. Endoscopy

32

What are some of the triggers substance of GERD

Chocolate, Friend and fatty foods, alcohol, coffee, Garlic, Ketchup, mine, soda, juices, pepper, onions and spicy foods

33

How do you Diagnose GERD

history, Trail of Proton pump Inhibitors ( PPI - omeprazole) 24 hr monitoring- most accurate test. Manometry before corrective surgery and Barium.

34

What is the treatment for GERD

lifestyle modifications, H2 receptors blockers, PPI, Promotability agents ( metoclopromide) and Nissen Fundoplication

35

What is Barrett's Esophagus. what is the diagnose test

due to chronic GERD and change to columnar metaplasia Endoscopy

36

What is Candidiasis Esophagilits

present as white exudate patches over the length of the esophagus. adherent to the mucosa. Histologically, there is a necroinflammatory background with yeast and pseudo-hypheae present in the superficial Epithelial layer.

37

What is Viral Esophagitis

Multi-nucleation is a viral cytopathic Effect.