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Flashcards in Obstructive Respiratory Diseases Deck (29):
1

What is obstructive respiratory Diseases? and what does it include

They are diseases that the problem is with Breathing out. There is a problem with expelling CO2 but no problem with breathing in O2

2

What are the stats of obstructive disease

Typically the O2 levels are normal, CO2 is high, the pH is acidic (low) and breathing in is normal

3

What is the respiratory pH of the Obstructive

Respiratory Acidosis

4

What are the categories of presentation of obstructive

Hypoventilation, Acidosis, Asthma, COPD: Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema, Bronchiectasis: Cystic Fibrosis, Opioids and Sedatives

5

What is Asthma

Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways due to BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. Is reversible airway disease.

6

What do you tend to see in the smooth muscle

Macrophages, mucus, hypertrophy and hyperplasia

7

What is the mechanism of Asthma

As the pollen dendritic cell, it activates the T cell receptor or the Th2 cells that starts the IL-4 and IL-5. IL-5 activates eosinophils. IL-4 activates the IgE B cells. On re-exposure to antigen (Ag), the immediate reaction is triggered by Ag-induced cross-linking of IgE bound to Fc receptors on mast cells. These cells release preformed mediators that directly and via neuronal reflexes induce bronchospasm,increased vascular permeability, mucus production, and recruitment of leukocytes.

Leukocytes recruited to the site of Reaction (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils; lymphocytes and monocytes)release additional mediators that initiate the late phase of asthma. Several factors released from Eosinophils (e.g., major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein) also cause damage to the epithelium and airway constriction

8

What are some of the mediators

Leukotrienes: C4,D4 and E4 - bronchoconstriction and vascular permeability
ACH - contraction
Histamine - potent constrictor
IL-13 - Increase airway/ hyper-responsive
ADAM33- Bronchial smooth muscle, proliferation and fibroblasts proliferation

9

What are the types of mechanism

Hygiene, Atopic and Non-topic

10

What is hygiene Asthma

Where the cause of the asthma is due the the cleanness of the environment now. not being exposure to the different allergies

11

What is Atopic Asthma

It is dealing with hypersensitivity to allergens. you see this in patients that have had or have rhinitis or eczema.

12

What is Non-Atopic Asthma

this is deals with viral infections like Rhinovirus, Parainfluenza or pollutants

13

What does you see in the histology slides for asthma

Curshmanns crystals and Charot-Leaden crystals

14

What are you signs and symptoms of Asthma

Coughing
Chest pain
SOB or Breathlessness
Wheezing

15

What are the RED FLAGS of Asthma

Severe tachpnea/ tachycardia
Respiratory muscle fatigue
Diminished expiratory effort
cyanosis
silent chest

16

What are the triggers of asthma

allergens, Medications, Irritants and Upper respiratory infections

17

What is drug induced Asthma

Aspirin exacerbated respiratory Disease (AERD) : Patients have intolerance to aspirin, and the NSAID—> Develop recurrent rhinitis, nasal polyps, urticaria, and brochospasms with 2 hrs of ingestion of NSAID

18

What is one of the signs of drug induce Asthma and what are the signs

Salter's Triad:
Aspirin, Asthma and Nasal Polyps

19

What is COPD

Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Diseases where there is chronic obstructive or blockage of the airflow

20

What are the types of COPD

Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

21

What is chronic Bronchitis

it is a progressive cough that happens for 3 months with 2 years succession. it is the narrowing of the lumen with mucous and inflammation

22

What is emphysema

it is a progressive SOB with a permanent enlargement or dilations of the terminal bronchioles.

23

What are the types of emphysema? and what are the associated with

Centracine: Smoking
Paracinar- alpha anti-trypsin

24

What are the complications with COPD

Right heart failure
ventricular hypertrophy
pulmonary hypertension

25

What is bronchiectasis

permanent dilation of bronchi and bronchioles that is caused by destruction of the muscle and the supporting elastic tissue

26

What causes bronchiectasis

there are two types of causes : acquired: it is due to chronic necrotizing infection (P.aeruginosa, S. aureus, Klebsielaa and TB). Secondary to resisting infection or obstruction

Congenital:( cystic fibrosis is the most common cause in US) and immundofiecices predisposing to repeating bacterial infection kartagenener Syndrome

27

What are the manifestations of Bronchiectasis

Cough, Purulent sputum, hemolysis and clubbing

28

What is Cystic Fibrosis

Autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians where there are defective protein folding that causes chloride transport dysfunction. this leads to thick secretion from glands in lungs, pancreas, skin, reproductive organs and blockage of secretory. there is also a defective CF transmembrane conductor regulator

29

What are the manifestations of CF

Salty tasting skin, Poor growth, recurrent lung infection, meconium ileum, rectal prolapse, pancreatic insufficiency, Diabetes Mellitus, Osteoporosis, Infertility and Gallstones