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Flashcards in Head and Neck Disease - Nose Deck (20):

What is infectious rhinitis

infectious rhinitis- this is the common cold. adeno, echo and rhinovirus. inflammatory discharge, nasal mucosal is thickened edematous red and turbinates are enlarged.


What is allergic rhinitis

allergic rhinitis - hay fever. hypersensitivity reaction to dust, pollen, dander. IgE (eosinophils) mediated (type 1) Mucosal edema, redness, mucosa secretion, leukocytic infiltration predominately


What is chronic rhinitis

chronic rhinitis - Repeated attacks of acute rhinitis. risk factors are deviated nail septum and nasal polyps


What is sinusitis

sinusitis - upper respiratory infection that happens after a acute or chronic rhinitis. it is a viral (MCC) str. pneumonia (MC bacterial cause). it obstructs sinus outflow.


What are the clinical manifestations of sinusitis

clinical - fever, nasal congestion and thick discharge. physical exam - transillumination test, maxillary and frontal sinus pain on palliation, frontal headache that gets worse with bending head forward or lying down. Kartagner syndrome association.


What are nasal polyps

Nasal Polyps - Due to recurrent attacks of rhinitis, IgE associated and Sameter’s Triad.


What is pharyngitis

Inflammation of pharynx and is the most common cause of sore throat.


What are the MMC of pharyngitis

viral MMC, group A strep


What are the clinical manifestations of pharyngitis

clinical there is fever, sore throat, cough. How do you diagnose: center criteria, fever, tonsillar exudates, tender anteriorcerival adenopathy, and absence of cough. throat culture. treatment - NSAIDS and antibiotics.


What are the complications of Pharyngitis

Complications: acute thematic fever, scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periotonsillar, abscess, mastoiditis.


What is tonsillitis

it is inflammation of tonsils with symptoms same as pharyngitis but more severe.


What is nasopharyngeal carcinoma

is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, the uppermost region of the pharynx ("throat"), behind the nose where the nasal passages and auditory tubes join the remainder of the upper respiratory tract. NPC occurs in children and adults.


What is nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with? what are the common races that have it?

EBV. Chinese and African


What is Peritonsillar abscess

Peritonsillar Abscess: cellulitis of space behind tonsillar capsule, Group A strep. can develop from acute infection.


What are the manifestations of Peritonsillar abscess

Clinical- fever, dehydration, sore throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, uvular devotion and lock jaw.


What is laryngitis

Acute - Inflammation of larynx, same pathogens as pharynigits, voice strain.


What are the manifestations of laryngitis

Clinical – upper respiratory track infection symptoms, hoarseness, cough attacksTreatment – self resolving, voice rest, fluids, humidification, avoid smoking.


What are vocal cord nodules

Vocal Cord Nodules- Also called Singer’s nodules.Chronic voice strain, frequent URTI, smoke , alcohol.Clinical – hoarseness worse at the end of the day


What is laryngeal carcinoma

are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx.


What are the risk factors

Males. Risk factors – smoking (MCC), alcohol, HPV 6 & 11.Persistent hoarseness