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Flashcards in Liver Deck (37):
1

Where is the location of the liver i

it is locate below the diaphragm in the RUQ

2

What divides the liver

the Falciform ligament

3

What is the main tissue of the liver

Hepatocytes

4

What are the microscopic findings of the liver

Portal Triad
Peripheral Zone
Pericental Zone
Central Vein

5

What are the function

Bilrubin metabolism
Estrogen metabolism
All clotting factors except VIII and vwF
Regulation of glycogen storage

6

what is the formula for Bilirubin

Total = unconjugated + Conjugated

7

What vitamin is important to the clotting factor

Vitamin K

8

What are the steps of the metabolism and Excretion of Bilirubin

1) old RBC broken by macrophages in spleen
2) Hemoglobin broken to heme and globin
3)Heme to biliverdin that is related in to blood through albumin and taken by hepatocytes
4) its then conjugated by the liver by UGT
5) Stored in gallbladder for release into duodenum (2nd duodenum)
6) bacteria hydrolyze conjugated to urobilnogen
7) oxidation of urobilinogen yields urobilin/stercoblin (Yellow stool)
8) same oxidation happen in kidney and makes urine yellow

9

What is involved in the function of carb metabolism

Carbs--> polysaccharides--> glucose-->

10

What happens if there is hypoglycemia

glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen

11

What happens if there is hyperglycemia

glycolysis - the breakdown of glucose

12

What happens in lipid metabolism m

lipolysis - the breakdown of fate
synthesis of lipoprotein
triglyceride and cholesterol

13

What happens in protein synthesis

Deamination of amino acids and the conversion of NH3 to urea

14

What happens if NH3 ( ammonia) isn't converted

Hepatic encephalopathy

15

What happens with storage of Vitamin and minerals

Storages Fat double vitamin A, E D, K B12, Iron and copper

16

what is unconjugated bilirubin

Fat soluble

17

What is conjugated bilirubin

Water soluble

18

What does Vitamin A help with

Vision

19

What does Vitamin E help with

Anti-oxidant neuropathy

20

What does Vitamine D help with

Bone

21

What does Vita. K help with

Bleeding

22

What is neuropathy

Damage to the nerves through systemic disease like DM or Vitamin deficiency

23

What is Hemochromatosis

An increase in Fe due to genetic disorder

24

What is Wilson's Disease

genetic disorder due to the accusation of copper in the tissue due to liver disease

25

What are the steps of activation of Vitamin D

1) Ergocalciferol (D2- plants) is conveyed to Cholecalciferol (D3) and 7-Dehydrocholestrol is converted to cholecalciferol (D3) through UV light
2) cholecalciferol comes together in the liver to make converted to 25- Hydroxycholecalcifol through enzyme 25-hydrolyase
3) it then goes to the kidney where it becomes active by enzyme 1-alpha hydroxxylase to be calcitriol.

26

What are the different liver test

ALT, AST, ALP, GGT

27

What does ALT measure

liver damage, marker of inflammation

28

What does AST measure

Alcoholic disease usually 2 to 1 ratio

29

What does ALP measure

it is relevant in the aspect of the bone, liver, biliary tract and epithelium

30

What does GGT measure

it is relevant in the liver and biliary tract. it measures liver dysfunction. more sensitive than ALP and is seen in chronic alcoholism

31

What is albumin relevance

it is a protein made in the liver that maintains osmotic pressure. used to transport drugs, hormones and enzymes. it is decreased in acute liver disease

32

What is PT relevance

evaluates extrinsic pathway. relavant with factor 1, 2,5, 7, 9 and 10

33

What is Ammonia relevance

it is a by product of protein break down. it increases in sever hepatic dysfunction. encephalopathy

34

What is anti-mitochondrial antibody

Primary biliary cirrhosis

35

What is anti-smooth muscle antibody

autoimmune hepatitis

36

What is anti-nuclear antibody

autoimmune hepatitis

37

What is AFP

Hepatocellular carcinoma