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Anatomy (TOPNOTCH SUPPLEMENT) > Esophagus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Esophagus Deck (13):
0

Skeletal muscle

Consists of:
- cricopharyngeus muscle
- inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Relaxes during swallowing

Upper esophageal sphincters (UES)

1

Runs from pharynx to thorax, through superior & posterior mediastinum

Esophageal hiatus at T10

3 constrictions:
- junction between pharynx & esophagus
- tracheal bifurcation
- gastroesophageal junction

Esophagus

2

Smooth muscle

Functional sphincter

Relaxes during swallowing, prevents reflux

Lower esophageal sphincters (LES)

3

May constrict the esophagus

Enlarged R atrium

4

Enlarged LN --> indentation on esophagus seen on barium swallow

Bronchogenic CA

5

MC: lower 1/3

Metastasize below the diaphragm to celiac LN

Malignant esophageal tumors

6

May tear the posterior wall
- Mallory-Weiss tears; mucosa & sub mucosal layers only
- Boerhaave syndrome: all layers

Patient profile: alcoholic, bulimic, pregnant

SSX: severe retrosternal pain postvomiting & extravasated contrast media

Forceful vomiting

7

Stomach & GE junction herniates through the diaphragm

(+)reflux

Sliding hiatal hernia

8

Only the stomach herniates through the diaphragm

No reflux but strangulation or obstruction may occur

Paraesophageal hiatal hernia

9

LES fails to relax during swallowing due to absence of myenteric plexus

SSX: progressive dysphagia

Barium swallow: dilated esophagus above LES, distal stenosis at LES (bird beak)

Chaga's disease by Trypanosoma cruzi

Achalasia

10

Hypotonic LES

Scleroderma may be a systemic cause

Esophageal reflux

11

Replacement of stratified squamous epithelium with columnar (gastric) epithelium

Long history of reflux

May lead to esophageal adenocarcinoma

Barrett esophagus

12

Caustic strictures (ingestion of acids, alkali)

Recurrent mucosal destruction due to gastric acid reflux

Esophageal strictures (narrowing)