Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy (TOPNOTCH SUPPLEMENT) > Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (44):
0

Almond-shaped

Posterior to the broad ligament

Ovaries

1

Attachment to the lateral pelvic wall

Contains the ovarian artery, vein & nerve

Suspensory ligament of ovary

2

Surface is covered by simple cuboidal epithelium (germinal epithelium), devoid of peritoneal covering

Ovaries

3

Blood supply of ovaries

Abdominal aorta via ovarian arteries

4

Venous drainage of ovaries

L ovarian vein ➡️ L renal vein

R ovarian vein ➡️ IVC
- R-sided hydronephrosis in females may indicate thrombosis of R ovarian vein that is constricting the ureter (because R ovarian vein crosses the ureter to enter the IVC)

5

Referred down the inner thigh through the obturator nerve

Ovarian pain

6

MC type: epithelial tumor

Lymphatic drainage: deep para-aortic lymph nodes near the renal artery

Associated with HNPCC, Lynch syndrome II, p53 tumor suppressor gene mutation

Tumor markers: CEA, CA-125

Ovarian cancer

7

4 divisions of Uterine (Fallopian) tubes

Infundibulum

Ampulla

Isthmus

Intramural

8

Supported by mesosalphinx (a region of the broad ligament)

Fallopian tubes

9

Opens onto the peritoneal cavity

Infundibulum

10

Site of fertilization

Ampulla

11

Opens into uterine cavity

Intramural

12

Most common cause of infertility

Bacterial infection (gonococcal) with inflammation ➡️ scarring

Predisposes to ectopic tubal pregnancy

Salpingitis

13

MC site: ampulla

Risk factors: PID, pelvic surgery, in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol

SSX: sudden onset abdominal pain, delayed menses, +B-hCG test, intraperitoneal blood on culdocentesis

Ectopic tubal pregnancy

14

Types of ovarian cysts

Follicular cyst

Corpus luteum cyst

Theca luteum cyst

15

Functional cyst - physiologically & hormonal lay active, resolves spontaneously

SSX: sudden, extreme pelvic pain, especially in adolescent girl

Ovarian cyst

16

4 regions of uterus

Fundus

Cornu

Body

Cervix

17

Superior to Cornu

Contributes greatly to upper segment of uterus during pregnancy

As high as xiphoid process (T9) during pregnancy

Fundus

18

Hear the entry of uterine tubes

Cornu

19

Between Cornu & cervix

Body

20

Part of the body that divides the body from the cervix, preferred site for surgical incision during cesarean delivery

Isthmus

21

Contains the internal os, cervical canal and external os

Cervix

22

Round in nulliparous woman, transverse in parous women

External os

23

Formed by pubococcygeus & ileococcygeus muscles

Pelvic diaphragm (levator ani muscles)

24

Remnant of gubernaculum in the embryo

Round ligament of the uterus

25

Extends laterally from cervix to pelvic side walls

Located at the base of broad ligament

Contains the uterine artery (from internal iliac artery)

Transverse cervical ligament (Cardinal ligament of MACKENRODT)

26

Extends posteriorly from cervix to the sacrum

Places the uterus in anteverted position

Uterosacral ligament

27

Extends anteriorly from cervix to the pubic symphysis

Helps to prevent cystocele

Pubocervical ligament

28

Double fold of parietal peritoneum

Extends laterally from uterus to pelvic side walls

4 regions:
- mesosalphinx
- mesovarium
- mesometrium
- suspensory ligament of the ovary

Contains the ff structures:
- uterine artery, vein & artery
- uterine tubes
- ovarian ligament of the uterus (remnant of gubernaculum)
- epoophoron (remnant of mesonephric tubules)
- paraophoron (remnant of mesonephric tubules)
- Gartner duct ( remnant of mesonephric duct)
- ureter (at the base of broad ligament, posterior & inferior to uterine artery)
- uterine artery, vein & nerves (at the base of broad ligament within the transverse cervical ligament)

Broad ligament

29

Anterior bend of the uterus at the angle between cervix & body of the uterus

Anteflexed

30

Anterior bend of the uterus at the angle between the cervix & vagina

Anteverted

31

May spread to the pelvic side walls, obstructing the ureters --> hydronephrosis

Obturator lymph nodes

Cervical carcinoma

32

Smooth muscle proliferation which may become calcified

Location:
- submucosa (beneath the endometrium)
- intramural (within myometrium)
- subserosal (beneath the serosa)

Palpated as irregular, nodular masses that protrude against the anterior abdominal wall

May cause infertility if they block the uterine tube or prevent implantation of conceptus

Uterine fibrinoid (leiomyoma)

33

Extends from cervix to the vestibule

Degree of distention during childbirth is limited by the ischial spines & sacrospinous ligaments

Forms a recess around the cervix called fornix

Vagina

34

Related to vesicouterine pouch

Urinary bladder is palpable through it on DRE

Anterior fornix

35

Lateral to the cervix

Lateral fornix

36

Related to recto uterine sac of Douglas

Rectum, sacral promontory (S1) & coccyx are palpable through it on DRE

Site for culdocentesis

Posterior fornix

37

Needle passed through the posterior fornix into the recto uterine pouch of Douglas

Fluid collection for analysis or to collect oocytes for in vitro fertilization

Culdocentesis

38

Urinary bladder herniates into the anterior vaginal wall

Cystocele

39

Urinary bladder herniated into the posterior vaginal wall

Rectocele

40

Hairy skin with underlying fat pads

Labia majora

41

Hairless, located medial to labia majora

Enclose the vestibule

Continuous anteriorly with the prepuce & frenulum of clitoris; posteriorly with the fourchette

Labia minora

42

Space between labia minora

Contains the urethral orifice, paraurethral glans of Skene, vaginal introitus, greater vestibular glands of Bartholin, lesser vestibular glands

Vestibule

43

Homologous with the penis

Has no corpus Spongiosum

Body of the clitoris - formed by 2 corpora cavernosa

Glans of the clitoris - formed by fusion of the vestibular bulbs

Clitoris