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Flashcards in Sigmoid Colon Deck (5)
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Aganglionic megacolon

Absence of neural crest cells in myenteric plexus

Absence of peristalsis, fecal retention, abdominal distention

Hirchsprung's disease


Between descending colon and rectum

Begins at S1 (sacral promontory, pelvic inlet) & ends at S3 (rectosigmoid junction), where taenia coli are replaced by circular later of smooth muscle

Intraperitoneal, suspended by sigmoid mesocolon
- L ureter & L common iliac artery at the apex of sigmoid mesocolon

Blood supply: sigmoid arteries & rectosigmoid artery

Venous drainage: sigmoid vein --> inferior mesenteric vein --> hepatic portal system

Sigmoid colon


Presence of diverticula (pouches or sacs)

MC: sigmoid colon

>60 year old, low fiber, western diet

Perforation/inflammation of diverticula --> diverticulitis



Examination of sigmoid colon & rectum

At rectosigmoid junction, the sigmoid colon bends in anterior direction & to the left

Flexible sigmoidoscopy


Sigmoid colon is often used because of its mobility

May ablate the pelvic nerve plexus --> loss of ejaculation, erection, urine retention, ⬇️ peristalsis in the remaining colon