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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (40):
0

Parts of the skeletal system

Bones
Joints
Cartilages
Ligaments

1

Two divisions of skeletal system

Axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

2

Functions of the bones

Support the body
Protection of soft organs
Movement due to attached skeletal muscles
Storage of minerals and fats
Blood cell formation

3

Skeleton comprises how many bones?

206 bones

4

Two basic types of bone tissue

Compact bone - homogeneous

Spongy bone
- small needle-like pieces of bone
- many open spaces

5

Classified as he "short bone"

Calcaneus

6

Classification of bones according to SHAPE

Long bones
- typically longer than wide
- have a shaft with heads at both ends
- contain mostly compact bone

Short bones
- generally cube-shape
- contain mostly spongy bone

Flat bones
- thin and flattened
- usually curved
- thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone

Irregular bones
- irregular shape
- do not fit into other bone classification categories

7

Gross anatomy of long bones:

Shaft

Composed of compact bone

Diaphysis

8

Gross anatomy of long bones:

Ends of the bone

Composed mostly of spongy bone

Epiphysis

9

Junction between DIAPHYSIS AND EPIPHYSIS

Metaphysis

10

Covers the external surface of the epiphysis

Made of hyaline cartilage

Decreases friction at joint surfaces

Articular cartilage

11

Cavity of the shaft

Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults

Contains red marrow ( for blood cell formation) in infants

Medullary cavity

12

Forms the longitudinal part of the body

Divided into three parts: skull, vertebral column, bony thorax

Axial skeleton

13

Evzones of endochondral ossifications would cells accumulate Glycogen?

Zone of hypertrophy

14

Bone formation

Intramembranous - DIRECT

Intracartilagenous/ENDOCHONDRAL - INDIRECT

15

Zones of osteogenesis

Resting zone - site at which chondrocytes divide

Zone of proliferation - lengthens the cartilage model

Zone of hypertrophy - mature chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy, contain vacuoles and accumulate glycogen

Zone of calcification - degenerating chondrocytes, matrix between cells becomes filled with hydroxyapatite

Zone of ossification - contains differentiating osteoblasts

16

Immovable joints

Synarthroses

17

Functional classification if joints

Synarthroses - immovable joints

Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints

Diarthroses - freely moveable joints

18

Structural classification of joints

Fibrous joints - generally immovable

Cartilaginous joints - immovable or slightly moveable

Synovial joints - freely moveable

19

Bones united by FIBROUS TISSUE

SUTURES, SYNDESMOSES (allows more movement than sutures)

Fibrous joints

20

Bones connected by CARTILAGE

(Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints)

Cartilaginous joints

21

Articulating bones are separated by a JOINT CAVITY

SYNOVIAL FLUID is found in the joint cavity

Synovial joints

22

Features of SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Articular cartilage (HYALINE CARTILAGE) covers the ends of bones

Joint surfaces are enclosed by a FIBROUS ARTICULAR CAPSULE

have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid

Ligaments reinforce the joint

23

Pyramidal in shape

Axilla

24

Boundaries of the axilla

ANTERIORLY

Anterior (pectoral):
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Subclavius

25

Boudaries of the axilla

POSTERIORLY

Posterior (scapular):
Subscapular
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major

26

Boundaries of the axilla

MEDIALLY

Medial (costal):
2nd and 6th rib, and intercostal muscles
Serratus anterior muscle

27

Boundaries of the axilla

LATERALLY

Lateral (humeral):
Humerus
Long head of biceps brachii
Short head of biceps brachii
Coracobrachialis

28

Boundaries of axilla

APEX

Apex:
Bounded by 3 bones
Clavicle (anterior)
Scapula (posterior)
1st rib (medially)

29

Boundaries of the axilla

BASE

Base:
Skin, subcutaneous fascia and axillary fascia

30

Contents of axilla

Axillary vein

Axillary artery

Brachial plexus

31

Distal part of the sheath is closed with finger pressure

Syringe needle is inserted into the proximal part of the sheath - anesthetic solution is injected

Position verified by feeling the pulsations of the THIRD part of the axillary artery

Brachial Plexus Nerve Block

32

Tendons may become torn or inflamed

Inflammation of the rotator cuff

33

Most commonly affected tendon

Tendon of SUPRASPINATUS MUSCLE

34

Dorsal scapular spaces

Quadrangular space

Triangular space

35

Quadrangular space

Above - teres minor

Below - teres major

Medial - long head of triceps brachii

Lateral - surgical neck of humerus

Contents : axillary nerve (circumflex nerve), posterior circumflex humeral vessels

36

Triangular space

Above - teres minor

Below - teres major

Laterally - long head of biceps brachii

Contents: circumflex scapular vessels

37

Deep fascia of the arm

Bicipital apeneurosis

38

Muscles of the arm

ANTERIORLY

Flexor

Contents:
Musculocutaneous nerve
Coracobrachialis - adducts/flexes arm
Brachialis - main flexor of forearm
Biceps brachii - flexes and main supinator of forearm

39

Muscles of arm

POSTERIORLY

Extensor

Contents:
Radial nerve
Triceps brachii - main extensor of forearm