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Anatomy (TOPNOTCH SUPPLEMENT) > SKULL > Flashcards

Flashcards in SKULL Deck (32):
1

FACIAL

PAIRED: palatine, lacrimal, maxilla, nasal, inferior nasal concha, zygomatic

UNPAIRED: vomer, mandible

2

The point of meeting and articulation of the frontal, parietal, squamous temporal and great wing of sphenoid

PTERION

3

Skull fracture at PTERION

May lacerate the MIDDLE MENINGEAL ARTERY and cause an EPIDURAL or EXTRADURAL HEMATOMA

May compress the lateral part of a Cerebral hemisphere and RESULT IN HERNIATION OF THE MEDIAL PART OF TEMPORAL LOBE - COMPRESS THE BRAINSTEM

Initially - lucid asymptomatic interval, followed by WEAKNESS OF LIMB MUSCLES, DILATED PUPIL (compression of CN III) and DETERIORATION of CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS

4

May cause blood or CSF to escape from the ear, hearing loss and facial nerve damage

Petrous portion of the temporal bone

5

Anosmia, periorbital bruising / raccoon eyes and CSF leakage from the nose / rhinorrhea

Anterior cranial fossa

6

Fractures of the MAXILLAE

Le Fort I - horizontal fracture superior to the maxillary alveolar process

Le Fort II - posterolateral parts of the maxillary sinuses, CENTRAL PART of the FACE SEPARATED FROM CRANIUM

Le Fort III - horizontal fracture that passes through the superior orbital fissure, ethmoid and nasal extending to greater wing of sphenoid, MAXILLAE AND ZYGOMATIC SEPARATED FROM CRANIUM

7

Layers (SCALP)

Skin - sweat and sebaceous glands, hair follicles

Connective tissue - vascularized subcutaneous layer

Aponeurosis (GALEA APONEUROTICA) - tendinous sheet coverring the calvaria

Loose connective tissue - allows free movement of the scalp proper, EMISSARY VEINS - DANGER AREA

Pericranium/Periosteum

8

Premature closure of SAGITTAL suture

Frontal and occipital expansion

Long and narrow skull

Scaphocephaly

9

Premature closureof CORONAL suture

Short, high skull

"Tower skull"

Oxycephaly/Acrocephaly

10

Premature closure of coronal and lambdoid sutures on one side of the skull

Plagiocephaly

11

3 primary brain vesicles

Forebrain/Prosencephalon

Midbrain/Mesencephalon

Hindbrain/Rhombencephalon

12

5 weeks of development

Prosencephalon divides into TELENCEPHALON and DIENCEPHALON

MESENCEPHALON - no division


Rhombencephalon divides into METENCEPHALON and MYENCEPHALON

13

Derivatives of the Brain Vesicles

Telencephalon- Cerebrum

Diencephalon - Thalamus

Mesencepphalon - Midbrain

Metencephalon - Pons, Cerebellum

Myelencephalon - Medulla

NEURAL TUBE diffentiates into the CNS

NEURAL CREST gives rise to the cells that forms the PNS and ANS, CRANIAL and SPINAL AUTONOMIC GANGLIA

14

Neural crest derivatives

Sensory ganglia of cranial and spinal nerves

Neurolemmal sheath of Peripheral nerve

Meninges

Pigment cells of retina

Cells of adrenal medulla

15

Defective closure of the neural tube (4th week)

Etiologies:
Nutritional factors
Environmetal factors
Recent evidence proves that Folic acid/folate reduces the incidence of NTDs by as much as 70% if 400mg is taken daily beginning 3 months prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation

Neural tube defect

16

Anatomical Levels of NS

SUPRATENTORIAL LEVEL

INFRATENTORIAL/POSTERIOR FOSSA LEVEL

SPINAL LEVEL

PERIPHERAL LEVEL

17

Located ABOVE TENTORIUM CEREBELLA

Cerebrum, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, CN I and II

SUPRATENTORIAL LEVEL

18

Located BELOW TENTORIUM CEREBELLI but ABOVE FORAMEN MAGNUM

Cerebellum, brainstem (midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata), CN III to XII

INFRATENTORIAL/POSTERIOR FOSSA LEVEL

19

Located BELOW FORAMEN MAGNUM but contained WITHIN the VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Spinal cord, spinal nerves within the vertebral column

SPINAL LEVEL

20

Located OUTSIDE the SKULL and VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Neuromuscular structures located outside skill and vertebral column including CNs and spinal nerves and their peripheral branches

PERIPHERAL LEVEL

21

The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by 3 protective membranes or MENINGES

Dura mater

Arachnoid mater

Pia mater

22

CRANIAL

PAIRED: parietal, temporal

UNPAIRED: frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid

23

Dura mater of the brain (2 layers)

ENDOSTEAL LAYER

MENINGEAL LAYER

24

Periosteum covering the inner surface of skull bones

Endosteal layer

25

Dura mater proper

Dense string fibrous membrane covering the brain and is continuous through the foramen magnum with the dura mater of the spinal cord

Meningeal layer

26

Falx cerebri

Sickle

Shaped fold of dura mater that lies in the midline between two cerebral hemispheres

Its narrow anterior end is attached to the frontal crest and crista galli

27

Tentorium cerebelli

Crescent

Shaped fold of dura mater that roofs over the posterior cranial fossa

Covers the upper surface of the cerebellum and supports the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

28

Small, sickle

Shaped fold of dura mater attached to the internal occipital crest and projects forward between the two cerebellar hemispheres

Falx cerebelli

29

Diaphragma sella

Small, circular fold of dura mater that forms the roof for the sella turcica

30

The DURA mater receives its sensory nerve supply from the TRIGEMINAL AND THE FIRST THREE CERVICAL NERVES

the Dura ABOVE THE TENTORIUM is innvervated by the TRIGEMINAL NERVE and headache is referres to the forehead and the face

The Dura BELOW THE TENTORIUM is innervated by the CERVICAL NERVES AND THE HEADACHE IS REFERRED TO THE BACK OF THE HEAD AND NECK

FALX CEREBRI

31

Delicate, impermeable membrane covering the brain and lying between the pia mater internally and the dura materr externally

Separated from the dura by a potential space, SUBDURAL SPACE

Separated from pia mater by the SUBARACHNOID SPACE which is filled with tthe CEREBROSPINAL FLUID/CSF

ARACHNOID MATER

32

Vascular membrane covered by flattened mesothelial cells

Closely invests the brain covering the Gyri and descending into the deepest Sulci

PIA MATER