Exam 1- montemayor Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1- montemayor Deck (24):
1

what 3 factors affect myocardial O2 demand

wall stress
heart rate
contractility

2

wall stress is directly proportional to what

systolic ventricular pressure

3

what is formula for MVO2

coronary blood flow or CO x (AO2-VO2)

4

what is coronary steal

if arterioles already maximally dilated in response to ischemia, vasodilator action likely to only affect vessels in non-ischemic vascular beds

5

how does Sympathetic B1 adrenergic activity increase HR?

increased funny current in nodal cells
increased ICa in all myocardial cells

6

what are the ways that M2 Receptor activation decrease HR

increased Ik in nodal cells
decreased funny current in nodal cells
decreased ICa in all myocardial cells

7

pulmonary wedge pressure indicates pressure where

left atrium

8

the a wave in jugular venous curve is what

RA contraction

9

the c wave in jugular venous curve is what

RV pressure in early systole (bulging tricuspid valve into RA)

10

the v wave is what in jugular venous curve

RA filling (tricuspid closed)

11

what can cause large a waves on the jugular venous pulse curve

tricuspid stenosis, right heart fialure

12

what can cause cannon a waves on jugular venous cruve

3 degree complete hear tblock

13

no a waves of jugular venous curve indicate what

a fib

14

what do large v waves on jugular venous curve indicate

tricuspid regurg

15

what sounds of lungs are indicative of pulmonary edema

crackles

16

what starling force from LA increaed P leads to pulmonary edema in patients

capillary hydrostatic Pressure

17

what is formula for net pressure of starling forces

outward- inward
(capillary hydrostatic+ IF oncotic) - (capillary oncotic+IF hydrostatic)

18

What is normal splitting of S2

A2P2
pulmonary opens first closes last

19

how does inspiration affect the VR to right heart? left heart

increase to R because of negative intrathoracic pressure
decrease to L because retention of blood in pulmonary vv

20

What is formula for SV

EDV-ESV

21

what is formula for ejection fraction

SV/EDV

22

What is cardiac index

CO relative to body surface area

23

what are the effects of digoxin a cardiac glycoside on ventricular cells

increase contractility, increased Ca

slows the NaK pump so intracell Na and Ca accumulate (3Na 1Ca anti porter)

24

What are the 6 major effects of ANG II

vasoconstriction
stimulates adrenal-aldosterone
stimulates ADH/AVP
stimulates thirst
stimulates renal Na reabsorption
stimulates SNS activity