Exam 2, heart gomez Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2, heart gomez Deck (204)
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1

what causes foramen ovale to be a problem

when the R ventricular pressure overcomes the L
like in pulmonary HTN

2

a

a

3

what is unique about cardiac muscle cells

intercalated discs with gap junctions etc

4

what occurs in heart chambers with age

increased left atrial size
decreased ventricula size
sigmoid shaped venricular septum

5

what occurs in heart valves with age

aortic valve calcific deposits
mitral valve annular calcific deposits
fibrous thickening

6

what occurs to the epicardial coronary arteries in an aging heart

tortuosity

7

what happens to the myocardium in an aging heart

decreased pass, brown atrophy
lipofuscin deposition (aging pigment)

8

what happens to the aorta with an aging heart

dilated ascending aorta

9

What are the five basic categories of cardiac disease

congenital heart disease
HTN heart disease
ischemic heart disease
valvular heart disease
nonischemic primary myocardial disease

10

what is the cardiac reserve

the CO that is not used at rest
use 10-20% maximal output

11

What are the six general causes of cardiac dysfunction

-pump failure
-obstruction to blood flow through the heart
-regurgitant flow
-shunted flow
-disorders of cardiac conduction
-disruption of continuity of circulatory system

12

What are the six general causes of cardiac dysfunction

-pump failure
-obstruction to blood flow through the heart
-regurgitant flow
-shunted flow
-disorders of cardiac conduction
-disruption of continuity of circulatory system

13

what are examples of pump failure

primary myocardiopathy
ischmic cardiac disease

14

what are causes of obstruction blood flow through heart

valvular disease (stenosis)
HTN disease

15

what is an example of regurgitant flow

valvular disease (insufficiency)

16

what is an example of shunted flow cardiac dysfunction

congenital heart disease (PDA ASD and VSD)

17

what are examples of disruption to continuity of circulatory system

gunshot, ventricular rupture

18

what are examples of disruption to continuity of circulatory system

gunshot, ventricular rupture

19

what can cause an increased workload resulting in hypertrophy

increased physiologic need by a normal heart
or
overall decreased intrinsic myocardial contractility

20

what is the difference of cardiac hypertrophy and cardio megaly

megaly is heart size and weight, hypertrophy is ventricular thickness or weight

21

what is the normal weight for male and femal hearts

male 300-500 female 250-300

22

what can cause a heart to weigh >800 gm

aortic regurgitation or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

23

what can cause a heart to weigh >400

pulmonary HTN, IHD, systemic HTN aortic stenosis, mitral regug, dilated cardiomyopathy

24

what is the definition for cardiac dysfunction

inability to pump blood at a rate necessary for metabolizing tissues

25

What catecholamine is released in cardiac dysfunction

NE, neurohumoral stimulation, leads to more work for the heart. not good

26

What catecholamine is released in cardiac dysfunction

NE, neurohumoral stimulation, leads to more work for the heart. not good

27

What is the hearts response to pressure overload?
volume overload?

pressure= concentric Hypertrophy
volume= eccentric

28

what are causes of concentric hypertrophy in each ventricle

L-- systemic HTN or aortic stenosis
R-- cor pulmonale

29

what can cause a volume overload that results in eccentric hypertrophy

valve disorders and congenital heart disease

30

What can lead to CHF

insufficient pump rate
pump can only meet demands with increase in filling pressure