Exam 1, kaplan USMLE topics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1, kaplan USMLE topics Deck (31):
1

How do you calculate CO

HR x SV

2

How do you calculate MAP with just BP levels

DBP+ 1/3(SBP-DBP)

3

what is formula for MAP

CO x TPR

4

Which level of heart volume is the best representation of preload

EDV

5

how do we measure increased preload of L ventricle

rise in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

6

What is the formula for ejection fraction

SV / EDV

7

What can cause an increase in afteroload

increased MAP
increased TPR
aortic stenosis

8

describe effects of increased afterload on SV and ESV

decreased SV
increased ESV

9

describe changes with CHF on preload

loss of contractility which decreases ejection fraction and so increases preload

10

describe changes in preload with hemorrhage

decrease preload, lose venous return
SAN responds to increases contractility

11

what occurs with preload when you lay supine after standing

increased VR will increase performance and CO which inc BP so reflex is decreased SAN and reduced contractility

12

What is the formula for SV

EDV-ESV

13

what can cause an increase in ESV

abrnormal reduction in ventricular emptying due to impaired contractility or excessive afterload

14

what can cause a an decrease in EDV

decrease in ventricular compliance during filling
tissue stiffness or impaired ventricular relaxation

15

describe the process from which HTN can lead to L ventricular hypertrophy

at the begining the heart just increases contractility, over time preload increases, and decreased CO occurs. The ventricle then starts to hypertrophy to normalize wall tension

16

how does radius affect the wall tension and ventricular pressure

as radius increases, more wall tension is needed to maintain pressure

17

how do we calculate blood flow

Change in pressures over capillary bed (MAP-Venous Pressure) divided by Resistance

18

where is the lowest pressure drop in vasculature of the body

over the arterioles

19

how does blood viscosity affect resistence and how do we measure that? give clinical examples of dec viscosity and increased

increased viscosity increased Resistance
Hct!!
dec- anemia
inc- polycythemia vera

20

how does length of a vessel affect R

proprtionate
2x length= 2x resistance

21

what does a bruit indicate

turbulent flow

22

what are factors that can increase turbulent flow

increased tube diameter, increased velocity and decreasing blood viscosity

vessel branching and stenosis

23

how are afterload and CO paired

increased afterload usually causes a decrease in CO

24

Right atrial Pressure is an indicator of what

preload

25

describe changes in arterial and venous pressures from head to toe standing up

same pressure difference whole way.
as descend below the heart, both pressures increase

26

what are the effects of SAN on the body

arteriolar vasoconstriciton
increase in HR
venoconstriction

27

what is pulse pressure

difference of systolic and diastolic BP

28

What is the formula for myocardial O2 consumption

MVO2= coronary blood flow, or CO x (AO2-VO2)

29

What are the 2 main mechanisms involved in autoregulation of blood flow

metabolic: vasodilatory effects like adenosine, CO2, H+, and K+
myogenic: increased perdusing pressure increasing stretch so reflex contraction and decreased radius to decrease flow

30

How does exercising skel muscle increase the O2 availability from icnreased demand

vasodilator metabolites
muscle pump

31

when is coronary blood flow at its highest?

diastole becuase systole causes compression on vessels