Exam 3, HF, myocarditis, Pales Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3, HF, myocarditis, Pales Deck (62)
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1

Definition of CHD

syndrome with abnormality of cardiac structure or function is responsible for inability of heart to eject or fill with blood at a rate sufficient to meet demands

2

What are the systolic components of HF

myocardial function
preload (EDV)
afterload
HR

3

What are the diastolic components of HF

impaired relaxation
impaired compliance- stiff

4

What is high output failure HF

normal heart function
increased metabolic demand, increased peripheral blood flow from decreased PVR

5

What causes systolic HF

inadequate CO/EF

6

how do you calculate EF

SV/EDV

7

What causes Diastolic HF

inability of ventricles to relax and fill normally with blood during diastole

8

What is forward HF

decrease in perfusion of the organs/tissues down-stream from the heart

9

What is backward failure

backing up blood into organs upstream, increasing hydrostatic P, leading to congestion/edema

10

What is L HF

caused by conditions affecting L ventricle
CAD/ MI
aortic/mitral valve problems
HTN
cardiomyopathies
forward failure Sx in systemic circulation (downstream)
backward Sx in lungs

11

What is R HF

caused by conditions primarily affecting R ventricle
pulmonary diseases/ cor pulmonale
tricuspid/ pulmonary valves
pulmonary HTN
pulmonary emboli
backward failure symptoms in systemic circulation

12

what is biventricular failure

end result of L and R failure

13

What causes acute HF

massive MI, chorda tendinae rupture
Large PE
predominately forward failure

14

what causes chronic HF

progresses slowly
exacerbation
predominately backward failure

15

What are 3 main causes of HF

L heart
R Heart
High output

16

What can cause high output HF

metabolic disorders: thyrotoxicosis
Excessive blood flow: anemia, AV fistula, beriberi

17

What are causes of diastolic HF

chronic HTN, Hypertrophic CMP, restrictive CMP, ischemic fibrosis, pericardial diseases

18

what are causes of R HF

Cor pulmonale, pulm art HTN

19

What are causes of systolic HF

decreased contractility, icn preload, inc afterload, change in HR

20

CAD or MI will lead to what changes in the heart

dilated CM

21

how can HTN lead to dilated cardiomyopathy

HTN causes left ventricular Hypertrophy causing diastolic dysfunction and then ventricular dilation so systolic dysfunction

22

how does valvular Heart disease lead to dilated CM

regurg, increase EDV, preload, increase worklooad, hypertrophy, dilation, systolic dysfunction

23

What changes occur in heart from infective myocarditis

dilated cardiomyopathy
can be viral, bacerial fungal or helminthic

24

What are types of non-infective myocarditis

toxic: chemo, metals, lithium, malaria, radiation causing inflammation and fibrosis
autoimmune/CTD assoc myocarditis: giant cell myocarditis PM/DM, SLE/RA

25

What are the affects of cocaine on myocardium

may cause vasospasm leading to MI
arrhythmia
myocarditis/cardiomyopathy from released catecholamines

26

when can peripartum cardiomyopathy occur

between last mo of pregnancy and first 5 mo after delivery

27

What is takosubo cardiomyopathy

stress, apical ballooning or broken heart

28

what ar Sx of takotsubo cardiomyopathy

CP, SOB, syncope

29

what gene mutations can cause genetic HCM

myosin heavy chains
proteins regulating Ca handling
autosomal dominant

30

What type of dysfunction (systolic or diastolic) does HCM cause

diastolic