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Flashcards in EXAM History Deck (73):
0

Brief summary of WWII

The war in Europe began on September 1, 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, and concluded on September 2, 1945, with the official surrender of the last Axis nation, Japan. In Europe, the war ended earlier with the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945

1

What was a day of mourning?

On the 26th of January, 1938, Jack Patten and William Cooper protested as part of the Aborigines Progressive Association. They appealed for full citizen status and equality within the community. A 10 point plan was made for equality and included work, owning houses and having a bank account.

1

What was a day of mourning?

On the 26th of January, 1938, Jack Patten and William Cooper protested as part of the Aborigines Progressive Association. They appealed for full citizen status and equality within the community. A 10 point plan was made for equality and included work, owning houses and having a bank account.

2

What was the 1967 Referendum?

A referendum is the only way to change the Australian Constitution. Up until then the Aboriginal people were not recognised as people but were seen as flora and fauna. It took 10 years to gain enough 10 million signatures so the government would look at their claim. 90.7% of people voted yes to the proposal and allowed the Aboriginals to finally be recognised by law as people.

3

What was the Stolen Genreation?

This is when children were removed from their families and were sent to institutions or adopted by whites. It was believed the children would be raised better and become "civilised." It was to remove the culture from the aboriginals and hoped that full bloods would die out. From the 1930's assimilation acts were brought in to allow this to happen.

4

What are some organisations helping connect the stolen generation to their families?

"Link up" and "Close the Gap"

5

What was the Wave Hill protest?

On August 23, 1966, 200 indigenous stockmen walked off the property in protest to the unfair conditions. The moved to Wattie Creek as it contained several sacred sights and had a reliable water source. The Aboriginals were offered larger wages and new homes but all they wanted was equal pay and their land back. On August 16, 1975, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam handed back the land to the traditional owners, Vincent Lingari.

6

Define decolonisation

Allowing a country to become self governed or independent

7

Define discrimination

Making a distinction in favour for or against a person or thing based on the group, class or cater gory to which they belong

8

Define segregation

The separation of races due to racism

9

What so the treaty of Versailles

Signed on 28th of June 1919 it is a peace settlement between the allies and Germany. Signed shortly after world war 1 it laid the blame of the whole war on Germany

10

What were the key terms of the treaty of Versailles?

It restricted the size of Germany's military, made them hand over their navy to the allies, made Germany pay compensation to the allies and removed a large chunk of Germany's territory.

11

What was the League of Nations?

The League of Nations was formed after the treaty of Versailles was signed. It's primary aim was to prevent war and guard world peace however it was often referred to as a 'toothless tiger' as it had no real power. To send in armed forces into a country to prevent war all 42 members must agree or it cannot go ahead so nothing ever happened.

12

What were the roaring 20's?

A carefree time when people put the war behind them. New technologies and advertisement contributed to the name.

13

What was the Great Depression?

It began on the 24th of October, 1929 when the New York stock exchange fell. Unemployment levels were high, malnourished children collapsed at school and Australians were living in shanty towns in makeshift shelters made form whatever they could find.

14

What is fascism?

Fascism is a government system led by a dictator who had complete power. It had intense nationalism, a violent opposition to socialism, the glorification of war and strong racism.

15

What is Capitalism?

Capitalism is when the economy is largely in the hands of private individuals who own and control the means of production. It is a democracy where it believes in a free and competitive market, which allows opportunity to flourish.

16

What is Communism

Communism is a system in which cites ins share property and wealth based on their need. There is no private ownership and is a dictatorship where religion does not exist and everyone is equal.

17

What was the Cummergunga walk off?

On the4th of February, 1989, Jack Patten was arrested because he spoke out about their poor living conditions. In protest, 200 people crossed the Murray river into Victoria. This was huge because they weren't allowed off the reserve without the owners permission. They used small boats to cross the river

18

What was the Abo Call

It was a newspaper edited by Jack Patten that was for aboriginals and spoke out about the wrongs done to them. It was started up around the day of mourning

19

Wo was faith Bandler and what was the FCAA?

Faith Bandler was an Islander woman who was a campaign director and collected votes for the referendum. FCAA stood for the Federal Council of Aboriginal Advancement which she helped found.

20

Who was William Cooper?

Born in 1861 William Cooper was an Aboriginal activist. He collected 1814 signatures for a petition to King George. They wished for the King to prevent their extinction, give them their rights back and allow a person of their choice to represent them in Federal Parliament. The petition was blocked by the commonwealth and never made it to the King. Cooper also lead the first protest for Aboriginal rights in 1938.

21

Who were the leaders of the countries?

Germany - Hitler
Italy - Mussolini
Russia - Stalin
England - Winston Churchill
Australia - John Curtin
US - Roosevelt

22

What is appeasement?

This is when the British and other countries gave in to Japan, Germany and Italy hoping the would be satisfied. Germany announced they had an Air Force, were given a navy and no one stopped hitler when he took Rhineland.

23

Why did Aus go to war and what was Menzies speech?

Robert Menzies, Prime Minister at the start of the war, declared on radio that because England had declared war on Germany, "Australia is also at war"

24

What were major battles in WWII?

Battle of Kokoda, Battle of Britain, Battle of the Coral Sea, Battle of Dunkirk, Pacific War

25

What happened at Singapore?

The fall of Singapore was when a British commander surrendered to a meagre Japanese army that would have run out of ammo. This occurred after the fall of Malaya and made Prime Minister Curtin bring our troops home.

26

What happened at Kokoda?

The only Australian troops left to fight in Papua New Guinea were the Militia. These men first clashed with the Japanese Awala, they then carried out a fighting retreat until reinforcements came and the Japanese ran out of food and had to retreat.

27

What is militia

Units of volunteer and conscripted militiamen. Barely trained, under-equipped, poorly supplied and vastly outnumbered.

28

POWs

More than 30 000 Australians became prisoners of war. Some were forced to build the Burma -Thailand railway and others forced on death marches. Only 6 survived because they escaped, everyone who survived the walks were shot.

29

How was conscription viewed here?

Introduced in 1943, Curtin passed the militia bill that allowed conscripts to be sent anywhere within the South-West Pacific zone. It was looked down on.

30

What happened at Pearl Harbour?

This is when Japanese planes destroyed half the US fleet by bombing the US base in Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. This is what brought America into the war

31

What happened in Darwin?

19 February, Darwin was bombed. 243 people were killed. More airstrikes followed but they never made it further than the north coast.

32

Who was Hitler?

Leader of Nazi Germany from 1933 until his suicide in 1945. He was responsible for starting WWII and for killing more than 11 million people during the holocaust.

33

What was the holocaust?

The most systematic of all the Nazi war crimes. It was genocide intended to wipe out European Jews. The healthy Jews were sent to die as slaves and those who couldn't were gassed with prisoners of war.

34

How did WWII end?

The battle in Europe was won on April 30 1945 when the Reichstag was taken, the same day Hitler committed suicide. One week later, Germany signed an unconditional surrender. The war in the Pacific was won when the Americans dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Japanese accepted unconditional surrender, signed on September 2.

35

What is the UN

The United Nations has 2 main bodies, the General Assembly and the Security Council.

36

What was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

A document created by the UN that states the basic rights and fundamental freedoms which all humans are entitled to.

37

Who is William Barak?

A tracker in the Native Police Force. He set up Corranderrk reserve and became clan leader. They protested for freedom and peace and walked 40 miles into the city in protest. This made the reserve stay open for another 50, the closed when he died.

38

What were the Yirrakala bark petitions?

The Yolngu people sent in a petition written on bark proclaiming that the land taken from their reserve was theirs and couldn't be used for mining. They were paid lease and given land grants

39

What are some groups that stood up for Aboriginal Welfare?

Aboriginal Advancement League, Australian Aboriginal League, Federal Council for the Advance of Aboriginals

40

Who were some important people?

William Cooper, Jack Patten, William Ferguson, Doug Nicholls, Margret Tucker

41

What were the freedom rides?

The Freedom Rides were lead by Charles Perkins and Student Action For Aboriginals. Sydney uni kids drove around northern NSW to bring attention to the injustices. They were attacked and hurt but they drew allot of attention by the media and got things done. Moore and the swimming pool.

42

Who was Albert Namatjira and what were the dog tags laws?

Albert was an Artist who became an Australian Citizen. He was arrested for sharing a drink with his kinsmen who were wards of the state as he wasn't allowed to supply them alcohol. The Dog Tag laws are called so because if you applied for an exemption to become a citizen, you had to produce paperwork to prove that you were. You were controlled, stripped of your aboriginal identity but still not welcome in white society.

43

What was the stolen Generation?

This is when children were taken from their families and forced to assimilate. The Aborigines Protection Act 1909 gave authorities the power to govern all aspects of their lives.

44

What were some American movements?

Rosa Parks sat in the wrong part of a bus and when arrested everyone went on strike
Little Rock was the first school to allow coloured students
Martin Luther King Jr lead many non-violent protests and moved many

45

What was the Immigration Restriction Act?

In the mid 19th century coloured immigrants were expelled from Australia because they would take white mans jobs. The white Australia Policy/Immigration Restriction Act was brought in, in 1901 and gave officer she power to chose who entered the country.

46

What was the dictation test?

A literacy test that could be given in any European language as many times as wanted, it was designed so it could easily be failed by those they don't want coming in to Australia that weren't British. Indian British were allowed in.

47

What was the tent embassy?

The tent embassy was originally 1 beach umbrella with a sign. Many people soon came and the place was filled with tents. It was a demonstration that they wanted to move beyond assimilation and towards official recognition.

48

What was Populate or Perish

After WWII the fear of communism grew and many were concerned that 7 million could not defend a country. In 1945 publicity campaigns were set up in European refugee camps to persuade them to come to Australia.

49

What were some American movements?

Rosa Parks sat in the wrong part of a bus and when arrested everyone went on strike
Little Rock was the first school to allow coloured students
Martin Luther King Jr lead many non-violent protests and moved many

50

Who was Arthur Calwell?

The first Minister of immigration in 1945. He was the leader of the populate or perish program

51

The 4 waves of migration to Aus?

Wave 1- 1788 onwards, setting up colonial Australia through convicts
Wave 2- 1850's, the gold rush
Wave 3- 1930's onwards, after the Great War
Wave 4- 1945 onwards, after WWII

52

What was Assisted immigration?

Post WWII as part of "populate or perish" assisted immigration was offered to desirable migrants, those from Europe. They were given the chance to buy a cheap on-way ticket here, £10, and children travelled free

53

Define Assimilation

It is the merging of cultural traits, Aboriginals and European migrants were expected to drop their culture and join with the British without a second thought. Many refused to do so

54

What was integration?

This was attempting to have harmony within the cultures it is one step better than assimilation as they weren't forced to drop everything but it was still bad.

55

Define multiculturalism

The preservation of different cultures within a unified society

56

What were Vietnamese boat people?

After the fall of Saigon, many south Vietnamese people fled. Those who were caught escaping were sent back and tour turned in camps, some didn't make it. Some would buy tickets on large boats but others used small fishing boats not designed for the sea.

57

What was the stolen Generation?

This is when children were taken from their families and forced to assimilate. The Aborigines Protection Act 1909 gave authorities the power to govern all aspects of their lives.

58

Why did we go to the Vietnam War?

North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was democracy backed by the US. When North Vietnam threatened to invade the South, America and Australia sent troops in support. When an American ship falsely accused the North of attacking them both countries want more troops and war broke out.

59

What was the Domino theory?

This was the belief that if one country in Asia falls to communism all the others would fall after it. It was the reason America entered the Vietnam war because they feared all of Asia would fall to communism, a great fear of the west because communism was seen as a selfish and cowardly practise.

60

What was the Cold War?

This is when the worlds greatest super powers, America and the Soviet Union, played chicken. They threatened each other with bombs and nuclear weapons but it was called the Cold War as nothing was fired. It was an arms race between the 2 nations of who could stockpile the most weapons of mass destruction. At the centre of it all was ideology from both countries.

61

What was the view on conscription?

People thought that conscription was immoral as they were forced to fight someone else's war. The voting age was 21 but conscription age was 20. Many refused to register and spent time in prison.

62

Were there protests against the Vietnam war?

A large protest movement developed in opposition to the war, holding some of the largest protest marches ever seen in Australia. Many think the Anti-Vietnam protests were a beginning of fighting for other rights.

63

Why did we withdraw from Vietnam?

We withdrew because we were loosing and those in Australia were against the war. A ceasefire was signed in 1973 but the war only stopped in 1975 when the final American troops left. Vietnam became a united Communist state

64

What was the Aftermath in Australia?

When our soldiers returned home, they were not welcomed. They were shunned by society and were only welcomed back in 1987 when the parade was held.

65

What is South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SETO)

Signed by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, UK and the US who were all against communism. It intended to complement protect the anti-communist countries. It however didn't work very well because of all the fighting and was disbanded in 1977

66

What was the Immigration Restriction Act?

In the mid 19th century coloured immigrants were expelled from Australia because they would take white mans jobs. The white Australia Policy/Immigration Restriction Act was brought in, in 1901 and gave officer she power to chose who entered the country.

67

What was the dictation test?

A literacy test that could be given in any European language as many times as wanted, it was designed so it could easily be failed by those they don't want coming in to Australia that weren't British. Indian British were allowed in.

68

How did the Nazi rise to power?

The Germans hated the terms of the treaty of Versailles and the Nazi party formed. Germany suffered Hyperinflation because of the depression which wiped out the value of currency meaning it was better for insulation than paying. Hindenburg asked hitler to become the chancellor and soon became dictator. By 1923 the party had gained support from army officers but failed to seize power. He stirred up fears of communism and by intimidating voters they won power.

69

What was Populate or Perish

After WWII the fear of communism grew and many were concerned that 7 million could not defend a country. In 1945 publicity campaigns were set up in European refugee camps to persuade them to come to Australia.

70

What are the Enabling Acts?

On 23 March, 1933 it gave Hitler dictatorial powers and no one dared to go against him.

71

Definitions in the book

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