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Flashcards in Science 5 Deck (69):

What is an infectious disease?

A contagious disease only transmitted by certain contact


What is a non infectious disease?

Non-infectious diseases cannot be spread from one person to another. They can be inherited, nutritional, autoimmune or degenerative


What is the difference between a virus and a bacteria?

Bacteria is a single cell organism that can be destroyed by antibiotics. A virus is not living and cannot be destroyed but one can take medicine to help with the symptoms. Bacteria is larger


What is a parasite?

It's an organism that lives in or on another organism, or host, and benefits from it.


What does quarantine mean?

When boats carried ill people the whole ship had to stay out in the sea for another 40 days, quadraginta means 40 in Latin.


What are vectors?

Vectors are organisms that carry the pathogen between organisms without being infected themselves.


What are pathogens?

A bacteria, virus or other organism that can cause disease.


What are some cellular pathogens?

fungi, bacteria, worms, head lice, protozoans


What are some non-cellular pathogens?

Viruses, prions and viroids


How can disease spread?

Towels or surfaces with skin cells can spread fungal disease such as tinea and ringworm. Coughing, sneezing , water and food supply can also transmit diseases.


How do you stop contaminated water?

Many pathogens live in water. Water treatment with chemicals kills off microorganisms but tank water, creek water etc is not treated and should be boiled.


Examples of contaminated water

E coli levels are measured in summer as they indicate the level of faecal contamination of the water from sewage as in summer the increased temp results in increased reproduction of bacteria


What is the difference between disinfectant and antiseptics

Disinfectants kill pathogens on objects whilst antiseptics are used on the skin


What is epidemiology?

Epidemiology is the study of how diseases spread in a population. The study involves a host, an agent and the environment.


What is the host in relation to epidemiology?

The host refers to the focus organism and facts surrounding them


What is the agent in reference to epidemiology?

It's the organism or chemical under investigation that is thought to have caused the disease


What is the environment in relation to epidemiology?

Any external factors such as climate, population or available treatment


What can we do to stop diseases from spreading?

Personal hygiene, Care with food preparation, Proper disposal of sewage , garbage, Chemical control of vectors, Chemical, treatment using disinfectants, Pasteurisation of milk, Education, Quarantine and Use of drugs such as antibiotics


What is a plague?

Contagious diseases that spread rapidly throughout a population resulting in high death rates.


What is an epidemic?

Where the disease occurs in a particular area in a short space of time.


What is a pandemic?

Where the disease occurs world wide


What is the influenza virus?

A virus that constantly evolves, changing the surface proteins to prevent the immune system recognising it.
Examples are:
Spanish Flu 1918 (H1N1)
Asian Flu 1957 (H2N2)
Avian Flu 1997 (H5N1)


What are parasites that live inside you called?

Endoparasites include tapeworm, pinworm, roundworm and liver flukes


What are parasites that live outside you called?

Ectoparasites- these include ticks, fleas and lice


What are prions?

Prions are non-celular pathogens. they are abnormal infectious proteins which convert your normal protein into abnormal proteins.


Example of prions are

degenerative neurological disease such as TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)


What are viruses?

Viruses are non-cellular pathogens. They need a host cell to reproduce in.


What are the 3 classifications of bacteria?

Spherical bacteria (cocci), Rod shaped bacteria (bacilli) and spiral bacterium (spirillum)


What is tetanus?

Tetanus infection generally occurs through wound contamination. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw and elsewhere in the body. Infection can be prevented by proper immunisation. Caused by rod bacteria


What is meningitis?

inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The most common symptoms of meningitis are headaches, neck stiffness, fever, confusion, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises.


What is Pertussis?

Whooping cough symptoms are initially mild, and then develop into severe coughing fits.


What is pneumonia

inflammatory condition of the lung, it's symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing


What is leprosy?

Leprosy was transmitted by simply breathing and if left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes.


What is gastroenteritis?

Infectious diarrhoea or gastro is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves both the stomach and the small intestine resulting in some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and cramping.


What are some protozoans?

Amoeba, Gidaria (causes diarrhoea) and malaria


What is malaria

It's passed on by mosquitoes, vectors, and kills over 1million people each year. Symptoms include high fevers, shivering, sweating, fatigue, kidney failure and cerebral malaria.


What is small pox?

a contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules that usually leave permanent scars. It was effectively eradicated through vaccination by 1979


What is variolation

The Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation. It is the introduction of a vaccine substance into the body to boost immunity


Who was Edward Jenner?

Edward Jenner was the pioneer of the smallpox vaccine and is known as the "father of immunology". He found that cow pox would make one immune to small pox because milk maids never contracted the disease.


What are vaccines?

Vaccines are chemicals that cause your body to react as if it had met a pathogen. They are created by taking a small amount of poison produced by the bacterium and making it inactive, or by using dead bacteria/viruses. The body responds by making specific antibodies and you become ‘immune’ to the pathogen.


What is immunity?

Immunity is resistance to a disease-causing pathogen. If a person is exposed to a pathogen (primary infection) they make antibodies against it. The next time (secondary) they encounter the pathogen, they make antibodies much faster and they can resist the infection.


What is passive immunity?

antibodies are not produced by the organism requiring them. This is done naturally when babies obtain antiboides from their mother or artificially when antibodies are supplied directly like anti venom after a snake bite


What is Active Immunity?

Antibodies are produced by the organism either naturally as a result of infection or artificially as a result of vaccination


Where does penicillin come from?

Comes form a mould which prevents the growth of bacteria. Howard Florey and Ernst Chain developed penicillin into a useful medicine but some bacteria are becoming immune to it.


Nano treatment of cancer

Tiny nano particles are small enough to pass through a cell membrane and it is hoped that they will deliver the drugs needed directly to the cancer cells.


What I the first line of defence?

The non-specific and non-reactive line that aims to prevent entry of pathogens into the body. Examples are coughing, sneezing, nasal hairs, saliva, tears and stomach acid


What is the second line of defence?

It's the responsive line of defence that activates when a pathogen enters the body. Injured cells release Histamines that dilates blood vessels (vasodilation) to increase blood and oxygen supply for healing and inflammation occurs. Phagocytes/Macrophages arrive on the scene and destroy the pathogens (process called phagocytosis)


What is the third line of defence?

The Lymphatic system is the 3rd line. It consists of lymph vessels, which contain the fluid lymph which consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes. White blood cells arrive and the B lymphocytes create antibodies and T lymphocytes kill the invading cells by destroying the infected cells.


Who is Lady Mary Wortley Montague?

She contracted smallpox and then after she recovered brought back the form of inoculation for the use in England


What is a primary host and what is a secondary host in relation to parasites?

A primary host is where the adult lives and the secondary host is where the larvae stage occurs


What are the infectious diseases?

They are prions, viruses, bacteria, Protozoa and animal


What are non infectious disease categories?

They are nutritional, inheratied, mental, chemical (meatabolic), environmental, cancer and ageing


What are nutritional diseases?

Anaemia, osteoporosis, obesity and goitre


What are inherited diseases?

Cystic fibrosis, colourblindness and haemophilia


What are mental diseases?

Depression and schizophrenia


What are chemical diseases?

Lactose intolerance and diabetes


What are environmental diseases?

Drug related, accident related and asbestos related


What are ageing diseases?

Heart disease and arthritis


What are animal diseases?

Louse, liver fluke and tapeworm


What are fungal diseases?

Ringworm, tinea and thrush


What are bacterial diseases?

Botulism, tetanus, tuberculosis and cholera


What are viral diseases?

Influenza, measles, AIDs and chicken pox


What is a prion disease?

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)


What is the Hippocratic oath and who is it named after?

It's the oath doctors take to say they will look after the sick and not harm them. It was named after Hippocrates, an early Greek doctor


What is a host?

An animal o plant on or in which a parasite lives in.


What's an anitbody?

Something that is produced that specifically targets a foreign antigen to be destroyed. They are made by B Lymphocytes


What are antigens?

A foreign substance that when it enters the body triggers the immune system


What does fever do?

Fever is useful as a defence mechanism as the body's immune response can be strengthened at higher temperatures


How has technology growth effected the medicinal area?

As new technology comes around it gives us a better view of diseases and how they spread and what effects them