Flashcards in Health 7 Deck (28):
What are the aims of first aid?
Promote a safe environment, Preserve life, Prevent injury or illness becoming worse, help Promote quick recovery and Provide comfort for the ill or injured
What do you do in an emergency
Asses the situation quickly, identify the injury as much as you can, manage the casualty quickly and appropriately, send for emergency services, stay with the casualty until medical help arrives
What do you say once calling 000
Location, street name and number, telephone number being used, brief summary, number of casualties, brief description of injuries, answer any questions
How do you asses the situation?
Primary assessment- is it life threatening
Secondary assessment- are there other problems to manage
History- the story of what happened
Symptoms- what they victim can tell you about how they feel
Signs- observations you can make, see, feel, hear or smell
DANGER to self, others and the casualty
RESPONSE are they conscious? Yes send for help. No turn them on side and call 000
AIRWAY clear and open
BREATHING yes? Stable side position no? Turn on back start EAR
CIRCULATION yes? Continue EAR 15 breaths per minute no? Commence CPR
DEFIBRILLATION if EAR, CCR and CPR don't work they are used to give electric shock
What is the process of CPR?
Look for carotid pulse. If no pulse, kneel beside casualty and find sternum. Using heel of hands, compress, keeping clear of ribs. 30 compressions, 2 breaths. 5 sets in 2 minutes.
How is someone conscious?
They are aware of surroundings and self. Respond normally to touch, voice and other sensory stimuli
How is someone unconscious?
Wen they are not aware of self or surroundings. Responses are abnormal or absent. Brain fails to respond, they are unable to communicate, unaware of danger, unable to maintain clear airway, they are in a coma.
What are some causes of unconsciousness's?
Include head injury, drug or alcohol overdose, bleeding, poison, fainting, lack of oxygen, seizures, diabetes or stroke
How do you asses and unconscious patient?
Use DRABCD, check with a witness on what happened, look for obvious reasons, check for any medical bracelets, cards or medallions. Check response-shake and shout. Check breathing-quiet, rapid, noisy. Check for coughing or swallowing. Check pupil size
How do you manage a conscious patient?
Use DRABCD, ensure open airway, coma position, send for medical aid, attend to other injuries, give nothing by mouth, loosen tight clothing, continually asses.
What is shock?
A progressive condition caused by insignificant blood to brain or tissues. Mat lead to collapse of circulatory system and death.
What causes shock?
Severe blood loss, fluid loss (serve burns, diarrhoea), damaged heart, drop in blood pressure (spinal cord injury, infection, poisoning)
What are the signs and symptoms of shock?
Faintness or dizziness, restlessness, nausea, thirst, weak rapid pulse, pale face and lips, cold clammy skin, rapid breathing, conscious state may alter
What is the management of shock?
Aim to prevent shock, body will react by sending blood to vital organs, reassure casualty, lay them down with head low to maintain blood supply to brain, control external bleeding, dress any burns or bleeding, immobilise fractures, raise I fractured legs above heart level, loosen tight clothing, keep comfortable, moisten lips but do not give drink.
What are the types of bone breaks?
Fracture- broken or cracked bone, green stick fracture or dislocation
What are the types of fractures?
Simple or compound depending on the severity of the break
What are the signs and symptoms of bones breaking?
Fealt, heard, pain, difficult to move, loss of power, deformity, abnormal twist or shortening of the limb, tenderness, swelling and bruising.
What is the management of breaks?
DRABCD, control bleeding, avoid moving injured part, watch for signs of loss of circulation, manage shock, seek aid
What are roller bandages used for?
Holding dressings into place, helping to control bleeding, cold bandage (submerge in water) helps reduce swelling, pressure bandage for snake or spider bites
How to use a roller bandage
Stand in front with the tail of the bandage, place it over the limb, and roll up continuing to unwind bandage on the limb. Verlap bandage each turn, about 2 thirds, securing bandage end with tape. Check skin colour after bandaging, loosen if discolouration has occuerd.
How do you make an upper arm sling (St. johns sling)
Support arm at a 45° angle across chest, with the point at the elbow place one end over the arm onto the shoulder. Tuck the point under the elbow and bring other end up and tie on the back of the shoulder. Then tuck the point in at the arm and secure with a pin.
Lower arm sling
Place the point of the triangle at the elbow and put one end behind the arm and up to the opposite shoulder. Bring the other end round on top and tie just above the collar bone. Twist the point at the elbow into a knot.
Collar and cuff sling.
No often used. Lay the fabric down in a straight line then form a small loop up and a small loop down in the centre, this is called a clove hitch. Place the arm in the 2 holes and tie above collar bone on un-injured side.
What does RICE stand for?
It is a treatment method for soft tissue injuries. It stands for Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevation. It is considered a treatment not a cure for these injuries. Aim is to manage discomfort and internal bleeding
What is rest in RICE?
A key component in repairing the body. Without rest continual strain is placed in the affected area leading to increased inflammation, pain and possible further injury. Some injuries take longer to heal with out rest. Also a risk of abnormal repair or chronic inflammation. Should be long enough that no pain can be felt when in use
What is Ice in RICE
Ice is excellent at reducing inflammatory response of the body and pain from heat generated. Ice for 20 minutes for each hour. To prevent localised frostbite it is suggested ice be placed on a towel between it and the skin.