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Flashcards in Humanities 5 Deck (60):

When did federation occur?

1st of January 1901


Why did federation occur?

Reasons were the nations defence, imagination concerns, reliable communications and railway track sizes


What is Parliment?

Parliment is the branch of government that makes the laws


What is the executive?

Another part of government that administer the laws and carry out the business of parliment


What is the judiciary?

Also known as courts, judiciaries enforce the law


How is the Australian government structured?

It is structured with a single federal government that rules over everything and then state and territory governments that then rule over the local government. Each branch deals with different things


What system is the Australian government based upon?

It's based on the Westminster system and is called a constitutional monarchy


What is the hierarchy of the government?

Queen, Governor General, federal, state, local


Who makes up the cabinet?

The cabinet is made up of the ministers and leader of the party that currently holds the house


What is a constitution?

The constitution is the supreme law that all branches of government must follow


What is a constitutional monarchy?

It is a type of government that is based on a constitution and that has a king or queen as the head of state.


What is the federal governments responsibility?

Responsibilities include employment, trade, defence, immigration, foreign affairs, education (universities, colleges and grant schools) and airports


What are the state governments responsibilities?

Health (hospitals), police service, tourism, housing, state roads, education (primary and secondary), enviroment protection and aboriginal welfare


What are the local governments responsibilities?

Town planning, streets and bridges, sewerage, water supply, swimming pools, public libraries, education (kindergarten) and rubbish collection.


What is the role of the House of Representatives?

The House of Representatives is made up of the cabinet and the opposition. The cabinets job is to make important decisions in parliament and the opposition is meant to shadow and criticise their opposite position in power.


How many members are their in the senate and House of Representatives?

150 members in the House of Representatives and only 76 senators, 12 for each state and 2 representing each territory.


What is the role of the senate?

The senates main job is to act as a house of review in making sure that the rights of Australians are protected


Labour Party

Formed in the 1890's. it's current leader is Bill Shorten and believes it has a responsibility to look after the people


Liberal Party

Formed in 1944 it's current leader is Tony Abbot and it believes in individual freedom and free enterprise


National party for Australia

Founded in 1914 it fights for the equality of service, lifestyle and opportunity


Australian Greens

Formed in 1992 it aims to look after the environment and ensure everyone is treated fairly


When do elections occur?

Every 3 years


What to do on the day of the polls

People are required by law to go to a polling booth in your local area. Booths are open from 8am till 6pm. When you get there your name is ticked off and you take 2 forms to fill in. The green for for the House of Representatives is preferential order so every box must be filled. The senate form is proportional voting which means you only have to tick one box or you may be annoying and do a preferential vote bellow the black line.


What is the process to an election?

First the prime minister must set the date, it must be a Saturday. Once this is set eligible voters must check they are on the electoral role. Political candidates must nominate themselves. All parities start to campaign. Then Election Day comes about. Counting starts the minute voting stops watched over by scrutinises to make sure everything is going as it should. It is often clear near the nights end which party has won but sometimes counting can take several weeks before some seats are known


What are the requirements to be able to vote?

You must be 18 or over and you must be an Australian citizen


What is a law?

A legally binding contract that must be followed by all people


The difference between a bill and the act of parliment?

A bill is a draft of a rule whilst an act of parliament is a law that must be followed


Why are laws changed?

Laws are changed to keep up with public opinion. If the society's values change the laws need to change with them, if not it is likely that the public will rebel and no longer follow the law, this has happened throughout history. Other reasons laws have to be changed is because of technical advances and changing world events.


What are the features of an effective law?

It must be written so that it can only have one meaning, it must be communicated to the public, acceptable to the community, capable of being enforced and can be changed where necessary.


What is civil law?

Civil law deals with non criminal matters. It allows someone to bring action to someone else that has done them a wrong.


What matters does civil law deal with?

disputes between friends, business partners, consumers and retailers, neighbours or an individual and a government department


What are some civil wrongs?

negligence, trespass, defamation, nuisance and breach of contract


What is criminal law?

The branch of law that deals with the breaking of the law


What are common crimes?

robbery, homicide (manslaughter and murder), rape, assault, theft and drug offences


What is the court heirachy?

Magistrates, county, supreme, high


What does the magistrates court deal with?

It hears 90% of all criminal and civil cases. Minor civil disputes include people who sue other people for damage to property or for injury claims of up to $100 000. Minor criminal cases include stealing, drink-driving, indecent language and assault charges


What does the county court deal with?

Deals with more serious civil cases and serious criminal matters such as armed robbery, rape and burglary, and unlimited claims involving personal injury. Also deals with appeals from the magistrates court


What does the Supreme Court deal with?

The most serious criminal cases such as murder as well as the most serious civil cases involving large sums of money. Also hears appeals from county courts


What does the High court hear?

It deals with appeals from the state or territory Supreme Courts and also hears cases concerning the interpretation of the Australian Constitution


How does the magistrates court work?

There is no jury. A magistrate hears the cases, decides the verdict and sets any punishment


How does the county court work?

In some cases a jury will decide whether the accused is guilty or not. If the accused is found guilty, the judge will decide on an appropriate sentence.


How does the Supreme Court work?

In some cases a jury will decide whether the accused is guilty or not. If the accused is found guilty, the judge will decide on an appropriate sentence.


how do high court cases work?

The high court has no jury and its decisions are final.


What is the role of the police?

To enforce and maintain the law amongst society


What do judges do?

Depending on which court judges either make all the decision or one but is always an independent referee with the highest power in a court


What is the role of a juror?

A juror listens in on court cases and together decide the verdict


How many jurors are in criminal cases?



How many jurors are in civil cases?

6, they also decide how much money is to be paid


What is mediation?

Mediation is a from of avoiding court in civil cases. It is when a third party is involved and helps solve the situation. They cannot give advice but helps the two involved look at all the options. Discussions are held in private in o threading situations.


What is arbitration?

Arbitration is much like mediation but when a decision can not be released the arbitrator makes it for them.


What is a tribunal hearing?

It hears disputes of many kinds and is much like court but its proceedings are far more informal


What is negotiation?

Negotiation is when the 2 parties involved in a civil dispute talk it out and try to find a solution that will benefit everyone without going to court.


What is a federation?

The act of forming states into a single group with centralised control but some freedom throughout


Who are he current prime minister and the current premier?

The prime minister is Tony Abbot and the Premier is Denis Napthine


How do bills turn Ito laws?

First the proposed law is discussed in the cabinet, then the government lawyers are asked to draft a bill, copies of the bill are given to every member of the lower house to read, this is called the first reading. The second reading is in the house of reps and the involved minister explains the bill and a debate starts. Then the bill is debated more in detail and an be changed. The bill goes through a third reading and the vote is made. If it is passed through the upper house goes through a similar process of reading and debating but if they choose to change something it must go back to the house of reps. If the senate passes it it goes to royal assent and the Governor General signs it and it becomes and act of parliament


How is the government formed after an election?

Whomever wins the seat of an electorate now sits in the House of Representatives for which party they support. Whichever party has the most amount of electorates on their side are the new government


What is a political party?

They work hard to promote their ideas and encourage members of the public to join them. Their main aim is to have candidates elected to parliament. This way, they can try to influence the decisions of government


What is a coalition?

When two or more parties with a common interest team up in order to win more seats.


What is a monarchy?

A government with a king or queen at its head


What is the difference between indictable and summary offences?

They are both from criminal law but indictable offences are serious crimes such as homicide and rape but summary offences are less serious such as petty thefts and traffic offences