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Flashcards in EXAM Religion Deck (86):

Who was James Dixon?

It wasn't until 1800 that a catholic priest arrived in Australia as a convict. James Dixon was granted permission to day mass to the catholic convicts in 1803 but this was revoked in march 1804 when the gathering of Irish for mass was beloved to really be planning for the uprising.


Who were the first Catholics in Australia?

These were Irish convicts who were shipped over after breaking the law under the English rule.


Who was Father John Therry?

He arrived in 1820 and set up the first catholic school in Australia.


What event can be considered the formal establishment of the Catholic Church in Australia?

The arrival of father John Therry and Father Philip Connolly in 1820


Who was the first Australian bishop?

The first bishop was John Bede Polling. His idea was to set up a church on monk-like ideals but his didn't happen as most of his priest were Irish and that's not what they thought


Who were the first Church Leaders in Australia?

The Protestants


Who was Archbishop Vaughan?

He arrived in 1873 and helped Polding. When Polding died he replaced him as archbishop of Sydney and and was responsible for the many beautiful chapels and churches built in that era. He also contributed greatly to the catholic education


Who was Cardinal Moran?

Cardinal Moran became the next Archbishop of Sydney upon Vaughan’s death. He was the first Irish Archbishop. He felt that Catholics should be politically active in order to make changes.


What was the Second Vatican Council?

Vatican 2 was the most significant twentieth century event in the Catholic Church. It involved the pope and all the bishops of the world.


What was the norm in church before Vatican 2?

Pre Vatican II was very traditional. Priest said mass in Latin and turned his back to the congregation. Only he had a copy of the bible, the congregation had copies of prayers and responses they must say. When in church women must have their heads covered and wear long skirts. Nuns wore habits and lived a very solitude life.


What changes were made in Vatican 2?

Post Vatican II is today. Priests now face the congregation and speak in the common tongue. Everyone has access to the bible and it is sold in bookstores around the world in many different languages. Women no longer have to have their heads covered in the church and nuns now wear casual dress instead of habits.


Who is Australia’s first saint?

Saint Mary Mackillop


What was the significance of the Education Acts?

Before 1872 the governments have money to anyone who wanted to run a school since there was no state system of education at the time. The first catholic schools began around 1830 and consisted of untrained lay people teaching the children. By 1872 the Catholic Church was well established in Australia and the sisters of Mercy and Sister of charity were already working with the poor to help the community and educate the young


What was meant by free, compulsory and secular in the education acts?

This meant that there would be no fees, children must come and no religion was to be taught as part of the curriculum. Only schools that fitted this description would take claim to this fund, other schools, including the Catholics, were stripped of their funding.


What is conscience?

Conscience is the whole person, body, soul and mind, trying to make judgments about what is right and wrong. It involves judgements about who one ought to be and what behaviour one ought to choose or reject.


What are the stages of conscience development?

The first stage is acting upon fear of punishment, the second stage is motivated by what they will get out of it, the third stage is when a person acts in the need to be liked and to gain approval, the fourth stage is according to something said by a higher authority, normally law, the fifth stage a person acts on the consensus of society or the group, the sixth stage a person makes the decision on the demands of justice.


What are the steps to making moral decisions?

Find out the facts, list all the alternatives and their outcomes, be aware of pressure, both external and internal, check your instincts then decide and act


Can you give an example of an authority in the decision making process?

An authority is mainly he law or what has been said by an adult. Anyone who has an expertise in the field


What are some internal pressures when making a decision?

Strong emotions or desire eg anger or fear, conflict with parents or other significant adult, egocentricity (focus on yourself not caring of others)


What are some external pressures when making a decision?

Legal requirements, parents, peer group, fashion, media, financial restraints, teachers and other adults


What are the beatitudes?

They are a set of teachings by Jesus that begin with 'blessed are...' That appear in the gospels of Mathew and Luke. They challenge us to be strong in our beliefs, honest and continue on. They reflect the covenant and are similar to the 10 commandments.


What is the meaning behind 'Blessed are the poor in spirit?'

It challenges us to recognise the need of god in our lives. This allows god to help us.


What is the message behind 'Blessed are the peacemakers'?

We are challenged to be people who work for peace and harmony in our community


What is the meaning behind 'Blessed are the gentle'?

We are challenged to be gentle and treat others with respect, patience and compassion. We should go out of our way to help others


What is the purpose of the Commandments in relation to the Covenant?

The Ten Commandments were the “guidelines” that would govern the covenant relationship. They were the conditions of the agreement and how to live your life


Way is the meaning behind 'Blessed are those who mourn'?

We are challenged to accept times of sorrow and to have courage to say "sorry" when we make mistakes


What are the 10 commandments?

You shall not have strange gods before me, you shall not take the name of The Lord your god in vain, remember to keep holy the lords day, honour your father and your mother, you shall not kill, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not bear false witness against your neighbour, you shall not covet your neighbours wife and you shall not covet your neighbours goods.


What is the meaning behind 'Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for uprightness'?

We are challenged to follow god's commands and work hard to hold to he 10 commandments


What is the meaning behind 'Blesses are the merciful'?

We are challenged to help others when they are in need. We are also challenged to forgive


The first 3 commandments are about your relationship with God, What are the other 7 about?

The other seven are about your relation ship with the earth and others. What you should and shouldn't do to others


What is the message behind 'Blessed are the pure in heart'?

We are challenged to be singleminded people who make god part of our lives


What are the key values behind 'you shall not have strange gods before me'



What are the values behind 'you shall not take the name of your lord in vain'

Respect for god's and others names


What is the message behind 'Blessed are those who are persecuted'?

We are challenged to stand up for what is right and fight for what is just


the Beatitudes/Commandments still be applied today?

Yes, they follow the same ideas that the Catholic Church has today. The first 3 commandments are still followed by every Christian and the final seven are laws in our justice system. The beatitudes are common beliefs of all Christians that strive to have god in their lives


What are the differences and similarities between Commandments and Beatitudes?

The differences are commandments are laws where as the beatitudes are something that should be strived for. The similarities are that they're both believed and followed by Christians. They are both the word of god, spoken through Moses and Jesus.


What is the Nicene Creed and what purpose does it serve?

The nicene creed was written in 325AD and they called the council of Nicea to lay to rest disagreements through the church about Jesus. The creed says Jesus is 'in one being with the father' and made it clear that god, Jesus and the Holy Spirit are one so to stop false teachings. It was formed by the roman emperor Constantine.


What is monotheism?

Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God.


What is incarnation?

The idea that Jesus became flesh in Virgin Mary's womb


What are the values behind 'honour your father and your mother'

Family life, care and respect


What is resurrection?

It is the belief of Christ rising from the dead.


What are the values behind you shall not kill

Reverence for human life


What are the values behind 'you shall not commit adultery'

Faithfulness, love and promise keeping


What is salvation?

Salvation is the deliverance from danger and suffering.


What is meant by apostolic?

An apostolic believes the bible is the inspired word of god, giving a true history of creation and correct prophecy's of the ages.


What are the values of 'you shall not steal'

Honesty, trust and justice


What is healing

Healing can take many forms, from a physical cure to an emotional recovery


What are the values behind 'you shall not bear false witness against your neighbour'

Truth, honesty and goodness


What are the key values behind 'you shall not covet your neighbours wife' and 'you shall not covet your neighbours goods'

Act with generosity, love and don't be greedy


What is restorative justice?

Restorative Justice means to give back; to repair the harm; to reintegrate the persons who did the harm; to restore a sense of wellbeing and connection.


What is reconciliation?

It is the act of forgiving and reconciling with your past


What is remorse?

Deep regret or guilt for a wrong doing


Define religion

Organised systems of beliefs, stories, rituals, symbols, social organisation, ethics, preyed and sacred writings.


What is Abrahamic religion and what are some

Monotheistic faith of west Asia, all with a common origin of Abraham. These are Christianity, Islam and Judaism


What are eastern religions?

Found on the eastern countries (Asia) they include Hinduism and Buddhism


What is the priests role in the Sacrament of Reconciliation?

To listen and convey gods forgiveness and tell them what they must do to be forgiven


What are primal religions

The religious practices of the indigenous population


What are the 8 aspects of religion?

Social structure, myths, sacred texts, ethical principles, rituals, symbols and beliefs.


What are the 5 major world religions?

Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism


What are the steps in the Sacrament of Anointing the Sick?

It starts with the introductory rites - priest greets the sick person and gives a small introduction
Liturgy of the word - reads from scripture and normally one of the healing stories are chosen
Liturgy of the anointing - priest asks for gods blessing, blesses the oil and anoints the sick person, forehead, then hands then recites Lord's Prayer
Liturgy of holy communion - receive communion
Concluding rite- bless the sick person


As well as physical, what other kinds of healing do people sometimes need?

Mental, emotional and spiritual


To whom is this Sacrament offered to?

It may be given to any of the faithful that are sick or elderly. It can be done in or out of church


What are the beliefs of the 5 major religions

Hinduism - one ultimate reality is Brahman. Other gods and Goddesses represent aspects of Brahman
Buddhism - no creator god but in reincarnation, the founder is Siddharta Gautama
Islam - one Allah and Muhammad is his prophet
Judaism - there is one god Yaweh, Moses was the greatest prophet, messiah will come
Christianity - Nicene creed, one god, his son and the one church


What are the Myths of the 5 religions?

Hinduism - humans are not worthy enough to know how the earth came to be
Buddhism - Buddhist Jakata are 500 stories told by Gautama Buddha
Islam - Muhammad was a merchant visited by Gabriel, fled to Medina and preached Allah's word
Judaism - Torah is the 5 books of the Christian bible
Christianity - Gospels


What is the sacrament of Pennance?

This is the sacrament where, through the ministry of the priest, pele make peace with or are reconciled with God and the church


What is the purpose of anointing the sick?

The Sacrament of Anointing allows the person to find forgiveness – from God, from others, and from self- an essential element to the healing process


Ethical principles of the 5

Hinduism - Dharma means moral duty
Buddhism - the noble eight fold path
Islam - 5 pillars of Islam
Judaism - the covenant with god
Christianity - emphasises love, mercy and forgiveness


Rituals of the 5

Hinduism - Puja is daily worship done at home or temple
Buddhism - Puja, meditation and seven offerings
Islam - Sawn is in the month of Ramadan where Muslims fast from dawn to dusk
Judaism - Sabath, Passover and alive rituals
Christianity - Baptism and confirmation and Eucharist


Religious experience of the 5

Hinduism - pilgrimage to Sai Baba of Shirdi's burial site for a wish
Buddhism - linked with the 4 pillars/truths of life. The truth of suffering, the cause of suffering, the end of suffering, the path
Islam - Haji or pilgrimage to Makkah is one of the 5 pillars announcing their belief in Allah
Judaism - pilgrimage to the wailing wall in Jerusalem holiest place on earth
Christianity - know the stories of saints such as Saint Bernadette who made a healing spring


Social structure of the 5

Hinduism - 4 ranks + untouchables (Brahmin, Kshatryia, Viasya, Sudra, untouchables)
Buddhism - Sanghu, monks and lay people. Monks declare poverty and are fed by the lays
Islam - no central aiputhority, Imam's are leaders in prayer
Judaism - Rabbi are the teachers and lead prayer
Christianity - pope, bishops, priests, nuns, lays


Sacred texts of the 5

Hinduism - the 4 Vedas are the primary texts others are Bhagavad Gita and Ramayana
Buddhism - Dharma are the teachings of Gautama Buddha, also Pali cannon
Islam - Qur'an is the literal word of Allah told to Muhammad
Judaism - Torah is the first 5 books of Christian bible
Christianity - the bible with the old and new testaments


Symbols of the 5

Hinduism - households display emblems, image and idols of different gods. Aum is the sound of the universe being made
Buddhism - eight auspicious symbols, parasol, two golden fish, conch shell, lotus, dharma wheel, banner of victory, eternal know
Islam - Allah may not be depicted in any way so his name is written, stars and crescent moon
Judaism - Teflin are scrolls and Kippahs are hats


What are some major religions in Australia?

Hinduism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Islam, Judaism, the Uniting church


What are some minor religions in Australia?

Confucianism, New apostolic Church and Rastfarianism


Summaries Aboriginal tradition

There were approximately 700 indigenous groups with individual languages and religions. They believed the world was created when spirit ancestors emerged from the underground world. These ancestors moved across the land shaping the empty land. Each group has a special site where they are closest to these ancestors. Like others they have the 8 aspects


Summaries Moozlum

There were many points if tension when Tariq didn't want to be a Muslim. The problems faced in America was bullying, racism, alcohol in parties, strict Muslim ways. key parts are being beaten by the teachers at his school, liking a catholic, his mother leaving them and the anti-Muslim violence after 9/11.


Summaries brides of Christ

A mini series that surrounds the changes nuns go through during the Vatican 2. They change from the old ways to the new ways and gives us a good understanding of both sides and the way the Catholic Church works. Main characters are Sr Catherine/Diana, Sr Paul/Veronica, Mother Ambrose, Sr Agnes, Francis, Brigit and Rosemary. Each have their own problems and views.


What does spirituality have to do with religion?

Spirituality is expressed in many ways, this includes expressing it through religion. Instead of it being expressed in a general way it is refined and detailed to suit the religion.


Why is religion good for the world?

Most religions promote peace and understanding, they are charitable and work towards their own goals. Dr Yacoobi spent 20 years empowering women in Afghanistan by teaching them in underground schools. St Vincent de Paul is a charity.


Why is religion bad for the world?

Those with apostolic views and those who take the bible to extremes put a bad view on religion. The crusades were done in the name of God and the Roman Empire killed Muslims simply for praying to another god however they forgot the point in the 4th crusade. Extremists also put a bad image on religion.


What is my view on whether religion is good or bad for the world.

Religion is primarily good for the world. Fanatics use religion as an excuse for their crimes but in the right circumstances, everyone can be evil. Religions fight for peace, justice and follow their path set by god. They believe in second chances and the opportunity for good.


What are the oldest and youngest religions?

Oldest is Judaism (1800BCE) and youngest is Buddhism (6th century CE)


Where were the 5 main religions foundered?

Hinduism - India
Buddhism - north-east India
Islam - Saudi Arabia
Judaism - Israel
Christianity - Bethlehem


Where do the 5 pray?

Hinduism - temple
Buddhism - temple or Pagoda
Islam - mosque
Judaism - synagogue
Christianity - church


What is Confucianism?

an ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Confucianism focuses on the practical order inscribed in a this-worldly awareness of the Tian and a proper respect of the gods (shen). It emphasises the importance of the family, rather than salvation. They believe we are perfectible through personal work.


What are the 8 aspects of Aboriginal religion

Beliefs - Bunjil the eagle helped create the land
Myths - rainbow serpent created the river
Sacred Text - stories passed by song and word of mouth
Rituals - Ritual of the fire as a cleansing ritual
Ethical principles- respect your elders
Religious experience - spirituality of the land
Social structures - respect elders