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Flashcards in FA Gram + rods I Deck (35):
1

Pseudomembranous pharyngitis (grayish-white membrane) with lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, and arrhythmias

Corneybacterium diphtheriae

2

C. diphtheriae causes diphtheria via exotoxin encoded by

beta prophage

3

diphtheria toxin inhibits protein synthesis via

ADP-ribosylation of EF2

4

diphtheria forms black colonies on what type of agar

cystine-tellurite

5

Diphtheria diagnosis based on gram + rods with WHAT and WHAT test for toxin

metachromatic (blue and red) granules
Elek's test

6

what type of vaccine can prevent diphtheria?

toxoid

7

What do you call the lab test for diphtheria toxin?

Elek's test

8

Cornebacterium diphtheriae mnemonic:
ABCDE

ADP-ribosylation
Beta-prophage
Corynebacterium
Diphtheria
Elongation Factor 2
Granules

9

Spore-forming gram + bacteria found in soil (3)

Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium perfringens
C tetani

10

All 7 spore formers

B anthracis
C perfringens, botulinum, tetani, difficile
B cereus
Coxiella burnetii

11

Some bacteria can form spores at the end of the BLANK when nutrients are limited.

stationary phase

12

spores are highly resistant to

heat and chemicals

13

do spores have metabolic activity?

NO

14

how do you kill spores?

Autoclave (as is done to surgical equipment) by steaming at 121 degrees celcius for 15 minutes

15

gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacilli

Clostridia with exotoxins (C tetani, C botulinum, C perfringens, C difficile)

16

Spores have what in their core?

Dipicolinic acid

17

Tetanus is a tetanic paralysis that has what NT effect?

BLOCKS glycine and GABA (inhibitory NTs) from Renshaw cells in the spinal cord

18

Blockage of glycine and GABA release from Renshaw cells in spinal cord causes what symptoms

spastic paralysis
trismus (lockjaw)
risus sardonicus

19

Tetanus toxin and botulism toxin are proteases that

cleave releasing proteins for neurotransmitters

20

Produces a preformed, heat-labile toxin that inhibits ACh release at the NMJ

C botulinum

21

NT associated with tetanus

Glycine and GABA

22

NT associated with botulism

ACh

23

in adults, how is botulism caused?

ingestion of preformed toxin (i.e. in bad canned food)

24

in babies, how is botulism caused?

clasically, ingestion of spores in honey --> floppy baby

25

botulism presentation

flaccid paralysis

26

What is the toxin associated with C perfringens

alpha toxin (lecithinase, a phospholiapse)

27

C difficile toxins

Toxin A and Toxin B

28

What does alpha toxin cause

myonecrosis (gas gangrene) and hemolysis

29

gas gangreneq

C perfringens

30

What does C difficile toxin A cause?

enterotoxin that binds to the brush border of the gut

31

What does C difficile toxin B cause?

cytotoxin that destroys the cytoskeletal structure of enterocytes, causing psuedomembranosu colitis

32

C difficile is often secondary to antibiotic use, especially

clindamycin or ampicillin

33

how do you diagnose c diff?

detection of toxin A and/or B in the stool

34

C diff presentation

diarrhea

35

How do you treat c diff?

metronidazole or oral vancomycin