Flashcards in FA Gram + rods I Deck (35):
Pseudomembranous pharyngitis (grayish-white membrane) with lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, and arrhythmias
C. diphtheriae causes diphtheria via exotoxin encoded by
diphtheria toxin inhibits protein synthesis via
ADP-ribosylation of EF2
diphtheria forms black colonies on what type of agar
Diphtheria diagnosis based on gram + rods with WHAT and WHAT test for toxin
metachromatic (blue and red) granules
what type of vaccine can prevent diphtheria?
What do you call the lab test for diphtheria toxin?
Cornebacterium diphtheriae mnemonic:
Elongation Factor 2
Spore-forming gram + bacteria found in soil (3)
All 7 spore formers
C perfringens, botulinum, tetani, difficile
Some bacteria can form spores at the end of the BLANK when nutrients are limited.
spores are highly resistant to
heat and chemicals
do spores have metabolic activity?
how do you kill spores?
Autoclave (as is done to surgical equipment) by steaming at 121 degrees celcius for 15 minutes
gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacilli
Clostridia with exotoxins (C tetani, C botulinum, C perfringens, C difficile)
Spores have what in their core?
Tetanus is a tetanic paralysis that has what NT effect?
BLOCKS glycine and GABA (inhibitory NTs) from Renshaw cells in the spinal cord
Blockage of glycine and GABA release from Renshaw cells in spinal cord causes what symptoms
Tetanus toxin and botulism toxin are proteases that
cleave releasing proteins for neurotransmitters
Produces a preformed, heat-labile toxin that inhibits ACh release at the NMJ
NT associated with tetanus
Glycine and GABA
NT associated with botulism
in adults, how is botulism caused?
ingestion of preformed toxin (i.e. in bad canned food)
in babies, how is botulism caused?
clasically, ingestion of spores in honey --> floppy baby
What is the toxin associated with C perfringens
alpha toxin (lecithinase, a phospholiapse)
C difficile toxins
Toxin A and Toxin B
What does alpha toxin cause
myonecrosis (gas gangrene) and hemolysis
What does C difficile toxin A cause?
enterotoxin that binds to the brush border of the gut
What does C difficile toxin B cause?
cytotoxin that destroys the cytoskeletal structure of enterocytes, causing psuedomembranosu colitis
C difficile is often secondary to antibiotic use, especially
clindamycin or ampicillin
how do you diagnose c diff?
detection of toxin A and/or B in the stool
C diff presentation