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Flashcards in FA Bacterial Structures Deck (29):
1

gives rigid support to both gram + and - bacteria and protects against osmotic pressure

Peptidoglycan

2

Peptidoglycan is chemically composed of a sugar backbone with peptide side chains cross-linked by what?

Transpeptidase

3

What is the function of the cell wall/cell membrane in gram positives?

Major surface antigen

4

What is the cell wall/membrane of gram positives made out of?

Peptidoglycan for support and lipoteichoic acid

5

What immunological response does lipoteichoic acid induce in humans?

TNF and IL-1

6

What is the site of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), major surface antigen?

Outer membrane in gram negatives

7

What is the outer membrane of gram negatives made of?

Lipid A and O polysaccharide antigen

8

What does immunological response does the lipid A of the outer membrane of gram negatives induce?

TNF and IL-1

9

What is the antigen of the outer membrane of gram negatives?

O polysaccharide

10

What is the site of oxidative and transport enzymes in bacteria?

Plasma membrane (lipoprotein bilayer)

11

What do you call the space between the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria?

Periplasm

12

The periplasm contains many hydrolytic enzymes, including WHAT?

beta-lactamases

13

What is the function of the ribosome?

Protein synthesis

14

What do you call the two subunits of bacterial ribosomes?

50S and 30S

15

What structure protects against phagocytosis?

Bacterial capsule (both + and -)

16

What is the capsule made of?

polysaccharide (except Bacillus anthracis)

17

Bacillus anthracis has a capsule made of something other than polysaccharide. What is it?

D-glutamate.

18

What mediates adherence of bacteria to cell surface?

Pilus/fimbria

19

What forms attachment between two bacteria during conjugation?

Sex pilus

20

What is the pilus/fimbria made of?

Glycoprotein

21

What is the function and composition of the flagellum?

Motility and protein.

22

This structure is resistant to dehydration, heat, and chemicals

Spore

23

What are spores made of?

Keratin-like coat; dipicolinic acid; peptidoglycan.

24

What DNA structure contains a variety of genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, and toxins?

Plasmid

25

What bacterial structure mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces (e.g. indwelling catheters)?

Glycocalyx

26

What is the glycocalyx made of?

Polysaccharide

27

What things are unique to gram positives?

Lipoteichoic acid & cell wall

28

What things are unique to gram negatives?Q

1. Endotoxin/LPS (outer membrane)
2. Periplasm

29

What 5 structures are common to both gram + and -?

1. Flagellum
2. Pilus
3. Capsule
4. Peptidoglycan
5. Cytoplasmic membrane