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Flashcards in final exam, muscles Deck (103):
1

has 2 bellies, extends from the mandible to the hyoid bone, the other continues from the hyoid bone to the mastoid portion of temporal bone

digastric muscle

2

function of digastric muscle

open the mouth by depressing mandible, or elevate the larynx by raising hyoid bone

3

forms a muscular connection between the hyoid bone and the styloid process of the skull

stylohyoid muscle (anterior neck muscle)

4

extends from the clavicle and the sternum to the mastoid region of the skull

sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck muscle)

5

attaches to the scapula, the clavicle, and first rib, and the hyoid bone

omohyoid (anterior neck muscle)

6

anterior, middle, and posterior parts originate from transverse processes of cervical spine and insert at the first rib and second rib

scalenes (anterior neck muscle)

7

function of scalenes

laterally flex the neck and, if neck is stable, elevate their respective rib

8

the brachial plexus emerges between what?

the anterior and middle scalenes

9

function of muscles of mastication

move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint

10

what is the strongest jaw muscle?

the large masseter

11

what muscle assists in elevation of the mandible?

temporalis

12

what muscles can elevate, depress, or protract the mandible or slide it from side to side (lateral excursion)

the pterygoid muscles

13

why are movements of mastication important?

important in making efficient use of your teeth while you chew foods of various consistencies

14

what nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?

trigeminal 5

15

passes medial to the zygomatic arch to insert on the coronoid process of the mandible.

temporalis

16

inserts on the angle and lateral surface of the mandible

masseter

17

what muscles form the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle?

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitus inferior

18

what artery can be prone to excess pressure when rotating the head?

vertebral artery

19

become tight and very painful in FHP (forward head posture)

splenius capitis and cervicis

20

what muscles make up the superficial layer of the back and also produce limb movement?

lats, trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids

21

what muscles make up the intermediate layer of the back?

splenius, erector spinae, iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

22

what muscles make up the deep layers of the back and are responsible for spinal movement and stabilization?

transversospinalis

23

action of posterior serratus superior

elevates ribs

24

action of posterior serratus inferior

depresses ribs

25

action of rotatores brevis and longus

bilateral: extension T-spine
unliateral: rotation to opposite side

26

action of multifidus

bilateral: extends spine
unitlateral: flexes spine to same side, rotates to opposite side

27

action of semispinalis

extends spine and head
unliateral: flexes to same said, rotates to opposite side

28

action of rectus abdominis

flexes trunk, compresses abdomen

29

action of pyramidalis

tenses linea alba

30

action of external oblique

unliateral: flexes trunk to same side, rotates trunk to opposite side
bilateral: flexes trunk, compresses abdomen

31

action of tranversus abdominis

unilateral rotates trunk to same side, bilateral compresses abdomen

32

O: lower border of upper 11 ribs
I: upper border of last 11 ribs
A: inspiration

external intercostals

33

O: inner lower surface of upper 11 ribs
I: inner upper border of last 11 ribs
A: inspiration (interchondral portion), forced expiration (interosseous portion)

internal intercostals

34

action of trapezius descending part

draws scapula obliquely upward, rotates glenoid cavity superiorly, tilits head to same side and rotates it to opposite

35

action of trapezius transverse part

draws scapula medially

36

action of trapezius ascending part

draws scapula medially downward

37

what nerve innervates the trapezius?

spinal accessory

38

action of levator scapulae

draws scapula medially upward while moving inferior angle medially, inclines neck to same side

39

what nerve innervates levator scapulae?

dorsal scapular

40

action of rhomboid minor and major

steadies scapula, draws scapula medially upward

41

what nerve innervates the rhomboids?

dorsal scapular

42

action of latissimus dorsi

internal rotation, adduction, extension, respiration, "cough muscle"

43

what nerve innervates latissimus dorsi?

thoracodorsal

44

action of Teres major

internal rotation, adduction, extension

45

what nerve innervates teres major?

lower subscapular

46

action of deltoid

ant. head: shoulder flexion, horizontal abduction, internal rotation
posterior head: shoulder extension, horizontal adduction external rotation

47

what nerve innervates the deltoid?

axillary

48

action of pectoralis major

flexion and assisting in respiration when shoulder is fixed

49

what nerve innervates pectoralis major?

medial and lateral pectoral

50

action of coracobrachialis

shoulder flexion, adduction

51

what nerve innervates coracobrachialis

musculocutaneous

52

action of pectoralis minor

draws scapula downward, rotates glenoid inferiorly, assists in respiration

53

what nerve innervates pectoralis minor

medial pectoral

54

action of subclavius

steadies clavicle

55

what nerve innervates subclavius?

nerve to subclavius

56

action of serratus anterior

medial rotation of scapula, protracts scapula, elevates ribs when shoulder is fixed, rotates scapula laterally

57

what nerve innervates serratus anterior?

long thoracic

58

action of supraspinatus

shoulder abduction

59

nerve that innervates supraspinatus and infraspinatus

suprascapular

60

action of infraspinatus

external rotation

61

action of teres minor

external rotation

62

never that innervates teres minor

axillary

63

action of subscapularis

internal rotation of shoulder

64

nerve that innervates subscapularis

upper and lower subscapular

65

action of biceps brachii

elbow flexion and supination, shoulder flexion, acts as a stabilizer of humeral head during deltoid contraction, internal rotation and abduction of humerus

66

nerve that innervates biceps brachii

musculocutaneous

67

action of brachialis

elbow flexion

68

nerve that innervates brachialis

musculocutaneous and radial

69

action of triceps brachii

long head: shoulder extension and adduction
entire muscle: elbow extension

70

nerve that innervates triceps brachii

radial

71

action of anconeus

extends elbow and tightens the joint

72

nerve that innervates anconeus

radial

73

what nerve innervates the anterior compartment, flexors

median nerve

74

action of pronator teres

pronation and weak elbow flexion

75

action of flexor carpi radialis

wrist flexion, radial deviation, elbow flexion

76

action of flexor carpi ulnaris

wrist flexion, ulnar deviation, elbow flexion

77

action of flexor digitorum superficialis

flexion of middle and proximal phalanges, wrist and elbow flexion

78

action of flexor digitorum profundus

finger flexion, wrist flexion

79

action of flexor pollicis longus

thumb flexion, wrist flexion

80

action of pronator quadratus

pronation

81

what muscles are in the superficial group of the anterior compartment?

pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris

82

what muscle is in the intermediate group of the anterior compartment?

flexor digitorum superficialis

83

what muscles are in the deep group of the anterior compartment?

flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus

84

what nerve innervates the posterior compartment, extensors?

radial nerve

85

what muscles make up the superficial group of the posterior compartment?

extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris

86

what muscles make up the deep group of the posterior compartment

supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis

87

action of extensor digitorum

extension of MCP joints, wrist extension

88

action of extensor digiti minimi

extension and abduction of 5th finger, wrist extension

89

action of extensor carpi ulnaris

wrist extension and ulnar deviation

90

action of supinator

supination and elbow extension

91

action of abductor pollicis longus

extends 1st metacarpal, wrist radial deviation

92

action of extensor pollicis brevis

extension of proximal phalanx of thumb and radial deviation

93

action of extensor pollicis longus

extends distal phalanx of thumb, extends first metacarpal, radial deviation, wrist extension

94

action of extensor indicis

extends index finger and wrist

95

action of extensor carpi radialis longus

wrist extension and radial deviation, elbow flexion

96

action of extensor carpi radialis brevis

wrist extension and radial deviation, elbow flexion

97

action of brachioradialis

elbow flexion, half pronation from supination and vice versa

98

what tendons make up the anatomical snuffbox?

extensor pollicis longus tendon, abductor pollicis longus tendon, extensor pollicis brevis tendon

99

action of lumbricals

flex digits at MCP joints, extend them at IP joints

100

action of palmar interossei

adduct fingers toward middle finger

101

action of dorsal interosssei

abduct fingers away from middle finger

102

what innervates the deep part of flexor pollicis brevis?

ulnar nerve

103

what innervates the superficial part of flexor pollicis brevis?

median nerve