Flashcards in final exam, muscles Deck (103):
has 2 bellies, extends from the mandible to the hyoid bone, the other continues from the hyoid bone to the mastoid portion of temporal bone
function of digastric muscle
open the mouth by depressing mandible, or elevate the larynx by raising hyoid bone
forms a muscular connection between the hyoid bone and the styloid process of the skull
stylohyoid muscle (anterior neck muscle)
extends from the clavicle and the sternum to the mastoid region of the skull
sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck muscle)
attaches to the scapula, the clavicle, and first rib, and the hyoid bone
omohyoid (anterior neck muscle)
anterior, middle, and posterior parts originate from transverse processes of cervical spine and insert at the first rib and second rib
scalenes (anterior neck muscle)
function of scalenes
laterally flex the neck and, if neck is stable, elevate their respective rib
the brachial plexus emerges between what?
the anterior and middle scalenes
function of muscles of mastication
move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint
what is the strongest jaw muscle?
the large masseter
what muscle assists in elevation of the mandible?
what muscles can elevate, depress, or protract the mandible or slide it from side to side (lateral excursion)
the pterygoid muscles
why are movements of mastication important?
important in making efficient use of your teeth while you chew foods of various consistencies
what nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?
passes medial to the zygomatic arch to insert on the coronoid process of the mandible.
inserts on the angle and lateral surface of the mandible
what muscles form the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle?
rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitus inferior
what artery can be prone to excess pressure when rotating the head?
become tight and very painful in FHP (forward head posture)
splenius capitis and cervicis
what muscles make up the superficial layer of the back and also produce limb movement?
lats, trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids
what muscles make up the intermediate layer of the back?
splenius, erector spinae, iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
what muscles make up the deep layers of the back and are responsible for spinal movement and stabilization?
action of posterior serratus superior
action of posterior serratus inferior
action of rotatores brevis and longus
bilateral: extension T-spine
unliateral: rotation to opposite side
action of multifidus
bilateral: extends spine
unitlateral: flexes spine to same side, rotates to opposite side
action of semispinalis
extends spine and head
unliateral: flexes to same said, rotates to opposite side
action of rectus abdominis
flexes trunk, compresses abdomen
action of pyramidalis
tenses linea alba
action of external oblique
unliateral: flexes trunk to same side, rotates trunk to opposite side
bilateral: flexes trunk, compresses abdomen
action of tranversus abdominis
unilateral rotates trunk to same side, bilateral compresses abdomen
O: lower border of upper 11 ribs
I: upper border of last 11 ribs
O: inner lower surface of upper 11 ribs
I: inner upper border of last 11 ribs
A: inspiration (interchondral portion), forced expiration (interosseous portion)
action of trapezius descending part
draws scapula obliquely upward, rotates glenoid cavity superiorly, tilits head to same side and rotates it to opposite
action of trapezius transverse part
draws scapula medially
action of trapezius ascending part
draws scapula medially downward
what nerve innervates the trapezius?
action of levator scapulae
draws scapula medially upward while moving inferior angle medially, inclines neck to same side
what nerve innervates levator scapulae?
action of rhomboid minor and major
steadies scapula, draws scapula medially upward
what nerve innervates the rhomboids?
action of latissimus dorsi
internal rotation, adduction, extension, respiration, "cough muscle"
what nerve innervates latissimus dorsi?
action of Teres major
internal rotation, adduction, extension
what nerve innervates teres major?
action of deltoid
ant. head: shoulder flexion, horizontal abduction, internal rotation
posterior head: shoulder extension, horizontal adduction external rotation
what nerve innervates the deltoid?
action of pectoralis major
flexion and assisting in respiration when shoulder is fixed
what nerve innervates pectoralis major?
medial and lateral pectoral
action of coracobrachialis
shoulder flexion, adduction
what nerve innervates coracobrachialis
action of pectoralis minor
draws scapula downward, rotates glenoid inferiorly, assists in respiration
what nerve innervates pectoralis minor
action of subclavius
what nerve innervates subclavius?
nerve to subclavius
action of serratus anterior
medial rotation of scapula, protracts scapula, elevates ribs when shoulder is fixed, rotates scapula laterally
what nerve innervates serratus anterior?
action of supraspinatus
nerve that innervates supraspinatus and infraspinatus
action of infraspinatus
action of teres minor
never that innervates teres minor
action of subscapularis
internal rotation of shoulder
nerve that innervates subscapularis
upper and lower subscapular
action of biceps brachii
elbow flexion and supination, shoulder flexion, acts as a stabilizer of humeral head during deltoid contraction, internal rotation and abduction of humerus
nerve that innervates biceps brachii
action of brachialis
nerve that innervates brachialis
musculocutaneous and radial
action of triceps brachii
long head: shoulder extension and adduction
entire muscle: elbow extension
nerve that innervates triceps brachii
action of anconeus
extends elbow and tightens the joint
nerve that innervates anconeus
what nerve innervates the anterior compartment, flexors
action of pronator teres
pronation and weak elbow flexion
action of flexor carpi radialis
wrist flexion, radial deviation, elbow flexion
action of flexor carpi ulnaris
wrist flexion, ulnar deviation, elbow flexion
action of flexor digitorum superficialis
flexion of middle and proximal phalanges, wrist and elbow flexion
action of flexor digitorum profundus
finger flexion, wrist flexion
action of flexor pollicis longus
thumb flexion, wrist flexion
action of pronator quadratus
what muscles are in the superficial group of the anterior compartment?
pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris
what muscle is in the intermediate group of the anterior compartment?
flexor digitorum superficialis
what muscles are in the deep group of the anterior compartment?
flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus
what nerve innervates the posterior compartment, extensors?
what muscles make up the superficial group of the posterior compartment?
extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris
what muscles make up the deep group of the posterior compartment
supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis
action of extensor digitorum
extension of MCP joints, wrist extension
action of extensor digiti minimi
extension and abduction of 5th finger, wrist extension
action of extensor carpi ulnaris
wrist extension and ulnar deviation
action of supinator
supination and elbow extension
action of abductor pollicis longus
extends 1st metacarpal, wrist radial deviation
action of extensor pollicis brevis
extension of proximal phalanx of thumb and radial deviation
action of extensor pollicis longus
extends distal phalanx of thumb, extends first metacarpal, radial deviation, wrist extension
action of extensor indicis
extends index finger and wrist
action of extensor carpi radialis longus
wrist extension and radial deviation, elbow flexion
action of extensor carpi radialis brevis
wrist extension and radial deviation, elbow flexion
action of brachioradialis
elbow flexion, half pronation from supination and vice versa
what tendons make up the anatomical snuffbox?
extensor pollicis longus tendon, abductor pollicis longus tendon, extensor pollicis brevis tendon
action of lumbricals
flex digits at MCP joints, extend them at IP joints
action of palmar interossei
adduct fingers toward middle finger
action of dorsal interosssei
abduct fingers away from middle finger
what innervates the deep part of flexor pollicis brevis?